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THE
SCIENTIFIC TAILOR
BASED ON GEOMETRY
A method of designing and drafting patterns for all
classes of garments for men, women and children, to
actual and composite measures
FOR
FACTORIES, TAILORS, LADIES' TAILORS, DRESS-
MAKERS, AND SCHOOL PURPOSES.
BY
F L. PHELPS.
VOLUME I, WOMEN'S GARMENTS.
.
\
d J/&, as is shown in the illustra-
tion at the top of this page.
SECOND.
A tape measure with inches on it, and the same divided into the customary
fractions of an inch.
This tape measure will be used to take the measures, and for measuring the
armhole on the diagram, when made, in order that the sleeve may be the proper
size to sew into the garment.
The tape measure is also used to make the sweep lines, which are so often
mentioned in this work.
Sweep lines are parts of circles, the pivotal point being the centre or radiating
point of the circle.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
TMTRD.
A curve-rule, which is illustrated on preceding page.
This curve-rule is simply a piece of metal, the edges of which form a great
variety of curves, both simple and compound; these curves being such as are
generally used by garment-designers in the making of patterns.
Each curve is designated by either a figure or a letter, so that having drawn
a curve that suits the taste, and the purpose, it is an easy matter to duplicate that
curve at any time.
Most of the designers make their curved lines with a free-hand movement,
using the eye as a guide, but this method requires a great amount of practice to
enable one to make the curve desired, and even then it is impossible to duplicate
a curve.
\\ ith this curve-rule a novice can do as good work as an old designer, in the
way of making curves, and an old designer can do more work, and better work, in
the same length of time.
While the curve-rule is no more of a necessity with this method of work than
it is with any other, it is such a convenience that a designer who has once tried it
will never think of getting along without it, and being made of metal, it will last a
life-time.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
TO TAKE THE MEASURES.
In the drafting of patterns for garments by this method, the first and most
important thing to do is to take correctly the proper measures, for they are the
foundation on which the diagram is builded, and unless the measures are correct, it
is impossible to draft a correct pattern.
Therefore study carefully the following instructions for taking measures. The
numbers on the illustrations correspond with the numbers at the top of the descrip-
tions of how to take the measures; i. e., Measure No. 2 is the Bust Measure, and
2 on the illustration shows where the tape is placed on a person to take that
measure.
NUMBER 1. THE NECK MEASURE.
Take the neck measure round the neck as shown in illustration, where the
garment should come, but not over another garment.
When it is impossible to get at this part of the neck on account of the garment
worn, take the neck measure above the collar and quite close around the neck, and
to this amount add one inch. This will give the neck measure to use in drafting a
pattern. The above directions are for a regular garment, but for a shirt waist
add one-half inch, as the band will come higher than in a wrapper or a tight-
fitting waist.
NUMBER 2. THE BUST MEASURE.
Take a position behind the person to be measured, and put the tape around
as in illustration, placing it up close under the arms, and well up in the back, so as
to cross the shoulder blades at their lower edges. Now hold the tape in the left
hand, between the thumb and finger, and with the right hand reach around in front,
and pull the tape down over the full part of the bust, as shown in the illustrations
by line 2.
Take the bust measure quite loose, except in stout forms, where it may be
taken reasonably close.
NUMBER 3. THE WAIST MEASURE.
Stand behind the person to be measured, and place the tape around the
smallest part of the waist ; then draw the tape real tight, so that it will seek the
smallest part of the person, which is the natural waist line.
Never crowd it down to a fashionable waist line, but take the measure at the
smallest part, where it will naturally come.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
NUMBER 4. THE HIP MEASURE.
Take the hip measure loosely around the hips, five inches below where the
waist measure was taken. Do not take this tight, and be sure that it is taken five
inches below the waist line.
NUMBER 5. THE CHEST MEASURE.
Let the person being measured drop the arms down at the side in a natural
position.
Now measure with the tape across the chest, about one inch above the bust
line, from the break of the muscle, at the arm on one side to the break of the
muscle on the other side at the armhole.
Do not get the tape too high in the centre, but keep it level with the bust
line, as shown in cut, by line 5.
Pay no attention to the armhole in the garment worn, but locate the points
where the armholes should be, and measure between these points.
The tendency of beginners is to take this measure too long, which will
necessitate paring out the armhole when the garment is tried on.
NUMBER 6. THE WIDTH OF BACK.
When the arms are straight down to the side, measure across the back, two
inches above the bust line, from where the armhole should be on the one side, to
where the armhole should be on the other side, as shown by line 6.
NUMBER 7. THE LENGTH OF FRONT.
Tie a cord around the waist, and draw it tight, so that it will seek the smallest
part of the person.
Do not crowd it down, or use a belt, but use a cord and draw it tight; and if
the party being measured tries to push it down, draw it so tight that she cannot
move it from its actual place, namely, the smallest part of the person.
Now take the length of front from where the garment should come at the
front of the neck, straight down the centre front to the cord at the waist, as shown
by line 7.
Take this measure quite loose.
NUMBER 8. THE UNDER ARM MEASURE.
While the arm of the person being measured is down by the side, measure
from close up under the arm, straight down to the cord at the waist.
Be very careful not to get this measure too long, for it is a defect hard to
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR,
remedy, while if it is too short, it is easily changed so as to make a fit when the
garment is tried on.
This measure is best taken with a flexible rule, or a piece of stiff card-board,
to get the length, and then measure the card-board with the square; this will give
the length in inches.
NUMBER 9. THE DEPTH OF SCYE.
Place a tape close up under the arm, thence across the back, and up close
under the other arm. Have the person being measured hold their arms firmly down
to their side; this will keep the tape in place under the arms. Then step back and
see if the tape runs straight across the back, that it is neither too high nor too
low in the centre of the back.
Now measure down the centre of the back, from where the garment should
come at the back of the neck, to the top of the tape, as shown in the illustration
by line 9. This will give the depth of scye, which means the depth of the armhole.
Much care is necessary in taking this measure.
NUMBER 10. THE OVER SHOULDER MEASURE.
Place the square up close under the arm, and measure from the top of the
square, just back of the armhole, up over the shoulder and down to the top of the
square, just in front of the armhole, as shown in the illustration by line 10.
NUMBER [i. THE FIRST BALANCE MEASURE.
Tie a plumb bob, or other small weight, to the end of a string twenty-four
inches long, and tie the other end of the string to the centre of a tape about the
same length. Suspend this weight, or plumb, under the arm as shown in the illus-
trations, by tying the two ends of the tape together over the shoulder.
Now see that the person being measured stands in a natural attitude, neither
stooping nor over erect. The plumb line, when pressed into the form at the waist,
locates the under-arm seam, and it may be located well to the front of the armhole,
or farther back as suits the fancy, but the object is to find out where the under-arm
seam should be located, at the bust line, at the waist line, and at the hip line.
Having located the plumb line at its proper place, proceed to take the balance
measures as follows :
Place the end of the tape at the plumb line, close up under the arm, and
measure from the plumb line to the centre back, which will give the first balance
measure. This measure tells how far it is from the centre back to the under-arm
seam ; or in other words, how much of the bust measure is in the back of the
garment, and is shown by line 1 1.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
NUMBER 12. THE SECOND BALANCE MEASURE.
Press the plumb line in to the waist, keeping it straight up and down ; then
measure from the plumb line, at the waist, on the waist line, to the centre-back, as
per line 12. This tells how many inches of the waist measure are in the back of
the garment, and is called the second balance.
On an erect form this measure will be short, while in stooping form it will be
long; in fact, that is the object of the balance measures — to tell whether the form
is stooping, erect, or over erect.
NUMBER 13. THE THIRD BALANCE MEASURE.
Take the third balance from the plumb line, five inches below the waist line
to the centre-back, keeping the tape five inches below the waist line. (See line 13
in illustration.)
This measure is taken very loose, it being part of the hip measure, which is
taken loose. This measure tells how much of the hip measure is on the back of
the garment, the remainder being on the front of the garment.
The object of these balance measures is to tell how much of the waist measure
belongs with a certain portion of the bust measure; and also to tell how much of
the hip measure belongs with that portion of the bust.
These thirteen measures comprise the principal measures for the body of a
garment; but there are three secondary measures as follows:
NUMBER 14. THE HEIGHT OF DART.
Measure from the centre of the neck in front, straight down the centre front
e brow of the bust. This will give the height of dart.
This measure is part of number 7, which is the length of front.
NUMBER 15. THE LENGTH OF BACK.
Measure from the back of the neck straight down the centre back to the cord
at the waist. This will give you the length of back.
NUMBER 16. THE WIDTH OF SHOULDERS.
Measure straight across the back, from point to point of shoulders, at the
shoulder seams. This will give the width of shoulders, and will vary according to
the prevailing styles.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
MEASURES FOR THE SLEEVES.
NUMBER i. THE ARMHOLE MEASURE.
This measure is taken from the diagram, by measuring the armhole in the
same, and adding the desired fullness.
NUMBER 2. THE SLEEVE LENGTH.
Put the short arm of the square up close under the arm, letting the arm hang
down to the side, and measure down to the wrist -joint. Always draft the sleeve
to this length, and then shorten or lengthen to suit the style wanted.
NUMBER 3. THE ELBOW MEASURE.
Take the elbow measure around the point of the elbow, when the arm is
folded, holding the tape as tight or as loose as the garment is wanted.
NUMBER 4. THE HAND MEASURE.
Take the hand measure with the fingers extended, as one would put their
hand into a close sleeve, measuring over the full part of the hand.
A secondary measure may also be taken — from close up under the arm down
to the elbow, it being part of the sleeve length; but this measure is seldom used,
and may be dispensed with if the other measure is properly taken.
Too much care cannot be exerted in taking the measures, and especially in
the depth of scye and the under-arm measures.
Be careful not to get the under-arm too long. If you do, the garment will
never be satisfactory in the fit, while if the under-arm is too short, it is easily
fitted.
On the balance measures, as their name would imply, the balance of the
garment depends, and you cannot have a worse garment than one that is out of
balance, for it cannot be fitted.
If the balance measures are not taken correctly, there will arise complications
that will not only puzzle the beginner, but they are now the perplexities of the old
designers and fitters.
If the second balance is taken too long, the garment will stand away from the
person in the centre back, at the waist; when it is unfastened, and when fastened
in front, it will stand away from the back of the neck, or have a fullness in the
front just below the neck.
If the second balance is too short, there will be a draw from the back of the
neck, around the front of the armhole, and from there to the waist line, in the
centre of the back.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR,
The most difficult part of this work is to take the measures, but these are not
hard to take if one only applies their mind to it, and uses good judgment.
Too much stress cannot be put on the fit of garments, for you must have the
fit in order to get the style. One sees garments that fit, but have no style; gar-
ments that have both style and fit, but never was a garment worn that was stylish
if it did not fit.
Spend a little extra time in taking the measures correctly, and in drafting a
pattern, and this time will be saved many times over in the fitting of the garment.
In drafting the diagrams in this volume, the following measures will be used,
unless otherwise stated :
Number i. The neck measure, 14 inches.
2. The bust measure, 36 inches.
" 3. The waist measure, 24 inches.
" 4. The hip measure, 40 inches.
" 5. The chest measure, 14 inches.
" 6. Width of back measure, 12 inches.
" 7. Length of front measure, 13/0 inches.
" 8. The under-arm measure, 8 inches.
" 9. The depth of scye, 7 inches.
" 10. The over-shoulder measure, 12 inches.
" 1 1. The first balance measure, 8 K inches.
" 12. The second balance measure, 5^ inches.
" 13. The third balance measure, 10 inches.
These measures are not a standard set of measures, but are selected for the
purpose of teaching, as they are easily carried out, and have but few fractions to
contend with in the application of the same to the diagram.
When the pupil is well versed in drafting Diagram 1 to the above measures, it
is a good plan to substitute some other measures for these, so that they may be
competent to draft the diagram to any measures before taking up Diagram 2, and
the same is true of each succeeding diagram.
Having learned to draft Diagram 1 to any measures, the best plan is now to
take the measures of some person, and make a pattern for them, and sew it up.
In this way one gets a practical application of each and every part, and they will
thoroughly understand why each measure is taken, and how to take it.
By this method of work, all patterns are the size the garment should be when
finished, and the needle must sew exactly where the edge of the pattern comes on
the cloth. Therefore seams must be added at all points in cutting out the goods,
and the exact amount allowed for seams must be taken in joining the several parts.
This is best done by marking on the cloth at the edge of the pattern, and
allowing a seam when cutting out the goods, then by sewing on the mark, the
correct size and shape of the garment is assured.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
For linings and all light weight goods on which a trace mark will show, the
marking should be done with a tracing wheel. But for wool goods the best plan
is to mark out with French chalk, then cut out the pieces, and lay the patterns on
the opposite side of the goods, and mark the other side, thus giving the marks to
sew to at all points.
For stock patterns trace out each separate part with a double tracing wheel,
thereby allowing seams at all points on the pattern traced out. These double
tracing wheels are adjustable, so that any width of seam desired can be given to
the pattern in tracing out the same.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR,
DIAGRAM i
Place the corner of the square at A, and draw line i across the top.
Draw line 2 at right angle to line 1.
A to B is 1 3^ inches.
A to C is H of an inch.
Draw line 3 with point N of the curve-rule at C.
C to D is the depth of scye. (7 inches for these measures.)
Draw line 4 at right angles to line 2.
D to E is >, of the bust measure. (iS inches for these measures.)
D to F is }, of the width of back. (6 inches for these measures.)
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR,
F to G is always 2 inches, and at right angles to line 4.
F to H is one inch less than % of the overs houlder measure, 5 inches. (Over-
shoulder is 12, divided by 2 = 6 — 1=5)
Draw line 5 with point 1 1 of the curve-rule near G, touching at H and G and
blending into line 4.
Draw line 6 with point A of the curve-rule at B.
Draw line 7 down from E at right angle to line 4.
E to I is 1 % inches.
Continue line 7 through E, forming line 8.
E to J is 1 inch more than the depth of scye. (8 inches for these measures.)
Draw line 9 at right angle to line 8.
J to K is 2' 4 inches.
Draw line 10 with point C of the curve-rule at I.
K to L is 2 )i inches.
Draw line 11 by placing the 1^ inch point of the neck rule (point J), at L,
swinging the curve-rule until y, of the neck measure (7 inches on the neck rule)
touches line 10.
From B to C there is used 1^ inches of the neck measure, and as that
amount is left off from the neck rule, when we apply J at L and swing the curve-
rule to jo neck measure we have completed the neck.
E to M is )i of the chest measure (7 inches).
M to N is always 2 inches, and at right angles to line 4.
Draw line 12 with point Y of the curve-rule at N, and blending into line 4.
L to is i 4 inch less than B to H.
Sweep line 13 from O, pivoting at L.
N to P is the remainder of the over-shoulder measure, 5 inches.
From F to H is 5 inches ; from M to N is 2 inches, and from N to P is 5
inches, which added together equal 1 2 inches — the amount of over-shoulder
measure.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
Draw line 14 with point A of the curve-rule at L.
Draw line 15 with point N of the curve-rule at N on the Diagram.
D to O is the under-arm measure (8 inches).
Draw line 16 at right angle to line 2.
to R is the first balance measure (8 % inches).
D to S is the jirsl balance measure (8 % inches).
to T is y% inch.
D to U is 1 k< inches.
Place point E of the curve-rule at T, letting it touch at D, and draw line 17
from T up to F of the curve-rule, then place point 19 of the curve-rule at U of the
diagram, and draw the rest of line 17.
R to V is M inch.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
Draw line 18 with point 15 of the curve-rule at S.
Draw line 19 with point J of the curve-rule at S.
Measure down from W the length of front (13 .'.., inches) locating X.
Draw line 20 with point G of the curve-rule at X.
This diagram is the foundation of all garments that hang upon the shoulders,
and too much care cannot be taken in learning it thoroughly, in order to fully
understand how it is drafted.
When required to draw a line at right angle to another line, have the edge of
the square exactly on the given line, so that the line drawn may form a perfect
right angle, and the diagram be drawn on the square, thus insuring a perfect fit.
Having learned to draft by these given measures, you will have no difficulty in
substituting for them any others you may wish.
The measurements are entirely individual, so there will be as much difference
in the appearance of diagrams drawn from several sets of measures as there is in
the looks of the persons measured ; i. e., a long depth of scye with a short over-
shoulder will give a sloping shoulder, while a short depth of scye with a long over-
shoulder will give a high square shoulder.
Yokes are made by cutting off the front and back in any shape desired. If
the yoke be wanted in one piece, lay the shoulder line together.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
DIAGRAM 2
A to B is i inch, more or less, as desired.
B to C is 34 °f an mcn (f° r these measures).
D is 1 inch above G on Diagram 1.
^ 4 a-
Draw line 1 with point U of the curve-rule at I), then without moving it,
make a mark on the curve-rule at E, also at B, this measures the distance from E
to B; now hold the rule firmly at E, and swing it over to C, and draw line 2 from
E down through C, locating F the same distance from E as B is from E.
The second balance measure is 5 }, inches, and as 1 inch of it has been used (A
to B), there remain 4^ inches for the other two pieces — 2.i 4 inches for each.
C to G is therefore 2)4 inches.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
Draw line 3 from F to G straight.
G to H is 1 \i inches, leaving the remaining 2'.i inches of the second balance
measure in the under-arm piece (from H to K).
Draw line 4 with point S of the curve-rule at I, then make a mark on the rule
at I and G; now hold the rule firmly at I, and swing it over to H ; then draw line
5 from I through H, and locate J the same distance from I as G is from I.
Draw line 6 from J to K straight.
This completes the back to the waist line.
From A to B is 1 inch ; from C to G is 2 % inches, and from H to K is 2 J4
inches, which added together equal 5 n inches — the secottd balance measure, the
amount of the waist measure required in the back of the garment, the remainder
being in front of the under-arm seam.
L to M is 1 jo inches.
N to O is 1 }. 2 inches.
Draw line 7 straight from M to O.
M to P is 3 inches.
P to O is 2 1 4 inches.
Half the waist measure is 12 inches, and as there has been used of this
amount for the back 5 ! 2 inches, there remain for the front 6 ,'o inches. By meas-
uring across the front from S to R, we find it to be 9 ,' 2 inches, it is therefore 3
inches too wide, which amount must be taken out in darts.
S to T is 1 )4 inches.
Draw line 8 with point O of the curve-rule at P.
Sweep line 9 from T, pivoting at P.
T to U is 1 inch or T , of the amount for darts.
Draw line 10 with point 10 of the curve-rule at P.
U to V is 1 inch.
Draw line 1 1 with point O of the curve-rule at O.
Sweep line 12 from V, pivoting at Q.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
V to \\ is 2 inches —the remaining amount for darts.
Draw line 13 with point 10 of the curve-rule at O.
In drafting the back, it may be divided into 2, 3, 4, or more pieces, and the
divisional of the same may be to suit the taste, but the total width of these pieces
must equal the second balance measure.
^ -fr A
If the back be made wider than the second balance, it will stand away from
the person at the waist line, in the centre back, when the garment is not fastened,
and when it is fastened, there will be a fulness in the front just below the neck.
If the back be made narrower at the waist line than the second balance meas-
ure, there will be a fulness in the back just below the shoulder blades. There will
also be a draw from the back of the neck down to the front of the armhole, mak-
ing the garment seem tight at this point.
Lines 1 and 4 may be drawn with any curve on the rule that suits the taste,
but line 2 must be the same as line 1, and line 5 the same as line 4.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
Points D and I may be located as desired without changing the fit of the
garment.
There may be one, two or three darts in the front, and they may be located to
suit the style and design of the garment, but the amount taken out in darts is
absolute, and is determined by subtracting the second balance measure from one-
half the waist measure. This gives the width the front should be, and what it
exceeds this amount (from S to R), must be taken out by darts.
All garments worn on the upper part of the body are based on this diagram,
and if it is thoroughly understood, they can be easily drafted.
In taking out at the waist the difference between the first and the second
balance measures, care and judgment should be used in the distribution of the
same, so that there will not be too much depression in one place, especially in the
centre back, for if too much is taken out at this point, there will be a fulness in the
centre back between the shoulders.
When the difference between the first and second balance measures is less than
3 inches, take out y A inch at A (Q to T in Diagram i).
In a broad-shouldered person, as well as some others, there is but little depres-
sion in the centre back, but the form tapers very much from the arm-pit to the
waist. For such forms take out a small amount at A, and from B to F, while a
greater proportion should be taken out from J to G, and from R to K, than is
shown in this diagram.
In drafting the front for forms of this description, the amount for darts should
be divided so as to make a narrow front dart, and a wide back dart.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
DIAGRAM 2. Figure 2.
The following measures are used in this diagram in order to show some of
the variations frequently made in drafting.
Neck 15, Bust 40, Waist 28, CJiest 16, Back 13, Length of Front 14)4,
Under- Arm 7 % , Depth of Scye "]%, Over-Shoulder 13, First Balance 10, Second
Balance 7, Height of Dart 9)4, Width of Shoulders 15.
As the neck is large (15 inches), the amount of the neck on the back should
be greater than for preceding measures, A to B is therefore 2 inches.
In preceding diagrams the front and back are together; hereafter they will be
separated so that the under-arm lines will not cross each other.
C to D is one-half the bust measure, 20 inches plus 4 inches, 24 inches.
C to E is the first balance measure, 10 inches.
E to F is 4 inches, that amount having been added to } 2 the bust measure
(from C to D), in order to separate the front from the back.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
G to H is one-sixth of the neck measure, 2 !„ inches.
H to I is one-sixth of the neck measure, 2 }., inches.
While this should be one-sixth of the neck measure, it is not necessary to use
difficult fractions, but make it 2 inches for small necks, 2)i for medium, and 2 %
for large.
J to K is the first balance measure, 10 inches.
K to L is the same as E to F (4 inches).
M to N is the height of dart, q> 4 inches.
Draw a straight line from N, parallel to the former dart line, and locate the
tops of darts on this line as shown in the diagram.
Long shoulders are in style at present, and will be at different periods of
time. The length of shoulder desired may be found by measuring across the back
from point to point of the shoulders, and this measure is applied as follows :
Place point A of the curve-rule at B, and extend the shoulder line (line 1) as
shown on the diagram.
Place the corner of the square at O with the long arm on the draft line in the
centre of the back, and locate P on the line 1 one-half the width of the shoulders
(7 M inches) from O.
Place point 12 of the curve-rule at R, and draw line 2 from R to P.
Place point A of the curve-rule at 1, and extend the front shoulder line (line
3) as shown on diagram, making the same addition to the front as was made to
the back shoulder.
Draw line 4 with point N of the curve-rule at T.
In making long shoulders, do not increase the width of back at R, as it will not
only produce fulness in the back, but will give the appearance of narrow shoulders.
This diagram shows the under-arm seam located well to the front of the arm-
hole, and the back divided into four pieces instead of three, as heretofore. This
is preferable for stout forms that are short-waisted. The pieces may be shaped to
suit the taste.
X is located at the width of chest point.
X to Y is one inch.
Place the corner of the square at Y, with the long arm on the bust line, and
locate Z where the short arm touches the arm-hole, and put a notch in the pattern
and goods at this point. Put the inside seam of the sleeve at this notch, and it
will hang correctly.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
DIAGRAM 3
A to B is 5 inches always, because the hip measure is taken 5 inches below
the waist-line.
Draw line 2 at right angle to line 1.
B to C is the third balance measure (10 inches).
I )raw line 3 with point W of the curve-rule at D.
Place the corner of the square at E, and locate F at right angle to line 4, as
per dotted line.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
Place the corner of the square at G, and locate H at right angle to line 5, as
per dotted line.
I is centre between F and H.
Draw line 6 with point 2 of the curve-rule at E.
Draw line 7 with point W of the curve-rule at G.
Place the corner of the square at J, and locate K at right angle to line 5, as
per dotted line.
Place the corner of the square at L, and locate M at right angle to line 8, as
per dotted line.
N is centre between M and K.
Draw line 9 with point 2 of the curve-rule at J.
Draw line 10 with point W of the curve-rule at L.
Draw line 1 1 with point 2 of the curve-rule at P.
Place the edge of the square on O and P, and locate O in a straight line with
O and P, as per dotted line.
Place the edge of the square on R and S, and locate T in a straight line with
R and S, as per dotted line.
R and S are duplicate points of and P, therefore T must be a duplicate
point of O, and as there should be the same amount of swell on the back side of
the front at the hip as there is on the front side of the back, the distance from T
to U must be the same as from O to C.
T to U is the same as O to C.
Draw line 12 with point \\ of the curve-rule at S.
Place point 16 of the curve-rule at V, touching at W, and draw line 13
\V to X is 5 inches always, as the lup measure is taken 5 inches below tfie
ivaist-line.
Place point G of the curve-rule at X, and draw line 14 through T to line 12.
Half the hip measure is 20 inches, and as 10 inches of this amount has been
used in the back (B to C), there remain 10 inches for the front. By measuring
line 14, it is found to be 13, '.; inches, which is 3 \. inches too wide — this amount
must be taken out in darts.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR,
Draw line 15 through the centre of the dart locating Y.
Draw line 16 through the centre of the other dart locating Z.
Y to (a) is '. 2 inch.
Draw line 17 with point \V of the curve-rule at (b).
Y to (c) is ;. 2 inch.
Draw line 18 with point 2 of the curve-rule at (d).
There were 3 >£ inches for darts, and having used 1 inch (a to c) in the first
dart, there remain 2 14 inches for the second dart.
Z to (e) is 1 14 inches.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
Draw line 19 with point W of the curve-rule at (f).
Z to (g) is 1 U inches.
Draw line 20 with point 2 of the curve-rule at (h).
Lines 4, 5 and 8 are the waist lines, and should always be kept on a lengthwise
thread of the goods in cutting the lining ; but on a crosswise thread of the goods
in cutting the outside.
Notches should be cut in the pattern, and the goods at D, E, G, J, L, P and S,
and these notches must be kept together in joining the separate pieces of the
garment, both in the lining and the outside goods.
If these points are not kept together, the garment cannot fit, and without
these notches it is impossible to tell how it should go together.
The third balance measure should be taken very loose, and if it should be too
long, it is easily remedied ; but if too short, it is a bad defect, and will produce a
fulness in the back dart at the hip line. In an ordinary form the third balance
will be 1 >£ inches longer than the first balance measure.
Do not get the back too wide, as it will not only wrinkle when the shoulders
are thrown back, but will make the garment appear tight across the chest.
If the chest is too wide, the garment will appear tight across the back when
the arms are thrown forward, and the garment will break in front of the arm-hole.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR,
DIAGRAM 4.
SLEEVE.
Measure the arm-hole of the pattern for which the sleeve is to be drafted, and
to this amount add -the desired fulness, the sum will be the size of the arm-hole
measure used in drafting the sleeve; i. e., if the arm-hole of the pattern is 17
inches, and if 3 inches will give the fulness for the effect desired, the sleeve must
be drafted to a 20-inch arm-hole measure.
The following are the measures used in this diagram :
Arm-hole 20 inches. Sleeve length 18 inches. Elbow 12 inches. Hand 8
inches.
Place the corner of the square at A, and draw line 1 straight.
Draw line 2 at right angle to line 1.
A to B is one-fourth of the arm-hole measure (5 inches for these measures).
A to C is the rejnainder of the arm-hole measure (15 inches).
Place the corner of the square at C, and draw line 3 at right angle to line r.
C to D is one-fourth of the arm-hole measure (5 inches, the same as A to B).
E is in the centre between A and C.
F is in the centre between E and C.
Place point L of the curve-rule at B, letting it touch at E, and draw line 4
from B up to point O of the curve-rule; then reverse the rule, and place point M
of the curve-rule at E, and draw the rest of line 4 through E to line 1.
Place point 12 of the curve rule at F, letting it touch at D, and draw line 5
from point 8 of the curve-rule through F to line 1.
Place point X of the curve-rule at D, and draw the rest of line 5.
Draw line 7, which joins lines 4 and 5, with point R of the curve-rule midway
between the two lines, blending it to the highest points of both.
I ) to G is the sleeve length (18 inches).
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
H is the centre between D and G.
B to I is the sleeve length (18 inches).
J is the centre between B and I.
Draw line 8 from H to J straight.
H to J is 15 inches, and as the elbow measure is 12 inches, there are 3 inches
to be taken out — one-half on each side.
H to K is therefore 1 }., inches.
J to L is the same, 1 \i inches.
Draw line 9 with point 15 of the curve-rule at D.
Draw line 10 with point J of the curve-rule at B.
Draw line 1 1 with point C of the curve-rule at K.
Draw line 12 with point 22 of the curve-rule at L.
Place the corner of the square at G, with the long arm running up; hold the
inside edge of the long arm in line with point E (as shown by dotted lines), and
draw line 13 with the short arm.
Place the corner of the square at I, with the long arm running up; hold the
inside edge in line with point E (as shown by dotted lines), and draw line 14 with
the short arm.
G to M is 1 inch more than one-half of the hand measure (5 inches).
I to N is 1 inch less than one-half of the hand measure (3 inches).
K to O is one-half of the elbow measure (6 inches) plus 1 .'., inches (y i4
inches).
Draw line 15 with point C of the curve-rule at O.
Draw line 16 with point 22 of the curve-rule at O.
Draw line 17 with point 22 of the curve-rule on line 4 at any point you may
prefer the seam to be located.
To make a one-piece sleeve with fulness at the back of the cuff, draw lines 13
and 14 past the centre of the diagram, and locate point P three inches straight
below where they cross.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
Draw line 18 with point M of the curve-rule at P.
Draw line 19 with point 12 of the curve-rule at P.
If more width be desired at the hand, draw a line from E to P, and cut the
pattern in two on this line. Spread the pattern apart at P, keeping it together at
E until the desired size is produced at the hand.
Any sleeve worn may be produced by this diagram. As an illustration, cut on
line 12 from I to L, then on line 8 to O, then down on line )6 to N, and from
there to I on line 14. Place point N at M, letting line 16 rest on line 15, and you
will have a sleeve with a dart at the elbow in the under-arm piece.
In the leg of mutton sleeve, another illustration of variations is given. By
cutting out the upper and under sleeve, and placing points M and N together,
letting line 16 rest on line 15, the top of the sleeve will be increased, forming a
sleeve with a large top, but fitting closely at the elbow and hand.
Take the sleeve length from close up under the arm to the wrist joint, and
draft the sleeve to this length, putting the elbow in the centre ; then lengthen or
shorten to style of sleeve desired, or depth of cuff to be attached.
Do not draft a short or a long sleeve, and then put the elbow in the centre ;
but draft it to the actual length, and then shorten or lengthen as desired.
In taking measures and drafting patterns, avoid getting the back and chest
too wide, as it will make a small arm-hole, which will have to be trimmed out,
leaving the sleeve with not enough fulness.
The sleeve should be fulled into the garment at all parts of the arm-hole, but
when long shoulders are worn, only a little fulness is wanted at the top, but the
sleeve should be quite full in front and back of the arm-hole.
When short shoulders are in style, and it is desired to have the sleeve stand
up above the shoulder, give more length to the top of the sleeve by making the
distance from A to B and from C to D more than J 4 of the arm-hole measure,
and making A to C the remainder.
Individuals having the same bust measure may require different sizes and
shapes of arm-hole; i. e., a person with a round form and narrow shoulders will
have a narrow chest and back, giving a wide arm-hole, and one having broad
shoulders will have a wide chest and back, making a narrow arm-hole. At the
same time the arm-holes may be the same size, one being narrow and deep, while
the other is wide and shallow.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
The sleeve should be drafted to the shape of the arm-hole by varying the
portion of the arm-hole measure that is used from A to B, making it greater for
the deep arm-hole, and less for the shallow.
Instead of drawing line 4 through E, the upper part of that line may be
drawn to a point one-half inch or more from E, thereby giving more width to the
top of the sleeve ; a similar variation may be made at E, giving still more width
to the top. By an opposite variation with lines 4 and 5, the top of the sleeve ma)'
be made narrow.
To insure a correct hanging sleeve, there should be a notch at the top of the
sleeve (which is the centre between E and F), and this notch should be kept at the
top of the arm-hole (which is at T on Diagram 5), while the inside seam of the
sleeve should be placed at Z, as shown in Diagram 2, Figure 2.
The notch at the top of the sleeve is very essential in putting tucks and plaits
in sleeves, as it shows where to locate the same in order that they may come to
the top of the arm-hole of the garment.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR,
DIAGRAM 5.
STRAIGHT FRONT WAIST.
This diagram is intended to meet the demand for a straight front waist, for
forms that are flat -in front, and for the straight front corset, and should not be
adopted for general use, as the average form has a depression in the centre front,
at the waist line, which will give more or less trouble, while Diagram 3 will give a
smooth-fitting garment.
This diagram is also used for a French bias dart, and when that effect is
wanted, the front dart should be narrow and the back dart wide.
Draw line 1 straight from A through B.
A to C is the length of front (14 inches).
Draw line 2 with point G of the curve-line at C.
C to D is 5 inches.
Draw line 3 with point G of the curve-rule at D.
C to E is 1 } 2 inches.
D to F is 1 ? 4 inches.
One-half of the waist measure is 12 inches, and as the second balance is s
inches, that amount of the waist measure has been used in the back, leaving the
remainder, 7 inches, as the width the front should be. Measuring across the front
on line 2, it is found to be 12 inches; it is therefore 5 inches too wide, and this
amount must be taken out in darts.
E to G is '.; the amount for darts ( 2 }, inches), more or less, if desired.
D to H is the same as C to G (4 inches in this case).
I is the centre between F and H.
J is the centre between E and G.
Place the edge of the square on I and J, and locate K, as per dotted line.
Draw line 4 with point O of the curve-rule at K.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
Draw line 5 with point 10 of the curve-rule at K.
Draw line 6 from E to F straight.
Draw line 7 straight.
H to L is 1 inch (more or less, as desired).
G to M is the same as H to L.
M to N is the remainder of the amount for darts (2;., inches for these
measures).
One-half the hip measure is 20 inches, and as the third balance is 10 inches,
that amount of the hip measure has been used in the back, leaving 10 inches as
the width the front should be. Measuring through on line 3, it is found to be 16
inches ; it is therefore 6 inches too wide, which amount must be taken out in darts.
Having used of this amount 2-}^ inches (from F to H), there remain 3 '.,
inches for the other dart.
L to O is therefore 3K inches. .
K to P is 3 inches (more or less, as desired).
Draw line 8 with point o of the curve-rule at P.
Draw line 9 with point 10 of the curve-rule at P.
Draw line 10 from M to L straight.
Draw line 1 1 with point C, D or E, blending into line 9.
It is sometimes preferable to have the seam on top instead of at the back of
the shoulder. In such cases proceed as follows :
Q to R is 1 inch.
S to T is 1 } 4 inches.
Draw line 12 from R to T straight.
Cut through on lines 12, 13, 14 and 15, and add this piece to the back, as
shown in the diagram.
When there is a difference between the length of back and the combined
depth of scye and under-arm measures (as in these measures the length of back
is 14, while the depth of scye 7 added to the under-arm 8 equals 15), make the
following changes :
6
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
U to V is the length of back, 14 inches.
Draw a straight line from V to \Y, and with points 2 and W of the curve-rule
draw lines from this sloping waist line down to the hip line, as shown by clotted
lines in the diagram.
Should the length of back be greater than the combined depth of scye and
under-arm measures, the variation will be similar, V being below instead of above
the regular waist line.
The waist line notches are placed as in previous diagrams, and the original
waist lines must be kept on the straight of the goods.
Diagram 5 is also used for shirt-waists by placing line 1 on the straight of the
goods, and leaving the amount for darts as a fulness.
Extra length is added to give the blouse in the front, as shown by clotted
lines, and may be varied to suit prevailing styles.
When gathers are wanted at the neck, proceed as follows :
Place the corner of the square at A, and draw a line at right angle to line 1.
Measure out on this line from A the amount that is to be gathered into the neck,
and from this point draw a line parallel to line 1 ; also draw a line from this point
to where the gathers will begin at the side of the neck, cutting the pattern on this
line to prevent wrinkles running from the neck to the arm-hole.
This back may be used for a shirt-waist by gathering it at the waist line the
amount that would be taken out by the darts, thereby making the distance from
under-arm seam to under-arm seam twice the second balance measure. This is
best done by cutting a tape to twice the second balance measure plus two seams,
and gathering the back at the waist line onto this tape.
Line 1 2 being on the top of the shoulder, if the top of the sleeve be placed
at T, an extension may be made to the top of the sleeve to run up to the neck,
and this addition to the sleeve may be formed into any design that the fancy may
dictate.
Line 12 will also assist in designing yokes which have points running out
over the sleeve, as it shows the angle at which they should run in order to lay on
the top of the sleeve, or meet other designs on the same.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
DIAGRAM 6
A TIGHT FITTING BACK IN ONE PIECE.
Draft a tight-fitting back in the regular manner as shown in Diagram 2, and
cut out the pieces; place the pieces together at the bust and waist lines, and
re-shape the arm-hole, as shown by dotted lines in illustration.
Lay the centre back on a fold of the paper at the neck and waist points, and
mark all around the pattern. Cut the folded paper on these lines, and you will
have a tight-fitting back in one piece.
If a back is wanted with a small amount of gathers at the waist, in the centre
back, place the centre back piece on the fold of the paper, at the neck, and }._, inch
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
from the fold at the waist line; this will give i inch for gathers in the centre back,
at the waist line.
Do not try to draft a tight-fitting back by taking out in the centre back and at
the under-arm seam the difference between the first and the second balance meas-
ures, as it will not fit, for the following reasons: By putting the pieces together at
the waist line, the arm-hole has changed shape, and is lower at the under-arm seam,
and the waist line is curved instead of straight; but when the garment is put
together they will have resumed their original position, thereby holding the garment
in at the waist line in the back, which would not be the case if the pattern were
drafted by taking the suppression out in the centre back and at the under-arm
seam.
By cutting out the pieces, and placing them together, as in illustration, the
same effect is obtained as if the pieces were sewed together, except that there is a
slight fulness back of the arm-hole, which is really no objection, as it squares up
the figure and prevents a round-shouldered effect.
Do not put gathers at the waist except where there is a surplus of goods, as
gathers are for the same purpose that darts are put between the pieces, and must
not be put into the back except where darts would be put into the same in order to
produce a tight and smooth fit.
The centre back and the side body may be cut together, and the under-arm
piece cut separate, if desired.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
DIAGRAM 6. Figure 2.
A TIGHT FITTING FRONT WITHOUT DARTS.
This diagram shows the front of a corset cover, and further illustrates the
variations that can be made in drafting.
Draft a tight-fitting waist pattern, and cut out all around the neck, as shown
by the dotted lines; then cut the front from the darts up to the top of the pattern ;
place the pieces together at the top and bottom of the darts, and shape the top of
the pattern as shown in illustration.
This will give a tight-fitting front with the exception that it will have a fulness
above the bust, which should be gathered at the top.
Many styles of corset covers may be made from the waist patterns by simple
variations, similar to this illustration.
There is also shown in this diagram the change necessary for a shirt waist
with fulness gathered into the neck band.
Draw line 1 straight.
Draw line 2 at right angle to line 1.
A to B is the amount that is to be fulled in at the neck.
Draw line 3 parallel to line 1.
Locate C where the gathers should begin at the neck.
Draw line 4 from B to C straight, and cut the pattern on this line, thus pre-
venting wrinkles running from the neck to the arm-hole.
D to E is twice the amount of blouse wanted.
Draw line 5 with point 12 of the curve-rule at E.
Sweep line 6, pivoting at A.
J!
I /
I s
1 s
/ y
j s
?
1 /
I s
I s
Is
/—
IB
_Cj
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
DIAGRAM 7.
COLL A R .
Draw line 1 straight.
A to B is three-fourths of the neck measure. (10 }.$ inches for these measured.)
B to C is the height of collar, 2 inches (more or less, as desired).
Sweep line 2 from B, pivoting at A.
Sweep line 3 from C, pivoting at A.
Measure around from B on line 2, one inch less than the neck measure (13
inches for these measures), establishing D.
Draw line 4 from A through D to line 3.
This diagram gives a perfectly round or regular collar.
If one should be desired lower in front, proceed as follows:
E is centre between B and D.
Draw dotted line 5 from A through E, as shown on the diagram.
E to F is 3 g of an inch.
Draw dotted line 6 with point 1 1 of the curve-rule at F.
Draw dotted line 7 with point N of the curve-rule at F.
G to H is 3/6 of an inch (more if desired).
Draw line 8 with point 1 1 of the curve-rule at H.
Draw line 9 with point N of the curve-rule at H.
Lines 8 and 9 may be drawn with any curve desired, and the distance from G
to H varied to suit the taste.
To make a straighter collar for a slim, long neck, A to B should be a greater
distance, say the full neck measure, and for a very short neck A to B should be
one-half of the neck measure.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
DIAGRAM 8.
TURN-DOWN COLLAR.
Draw line i straight.
A to B is one-half of the neck measure, plus one-half inch, (y ;., inches for
this measure).
Draw line 2 at right angle to line 1.
A to C is 2 inches always.
[A
1 ■"=
' __§l
c
«j
^—A-^
|c
* 4 inches, at right angles to line 14.
Draw line 16 with point 1 1 of the curve-rule on line 14.
Draw line 1 7 with point R of the curve-rule at S.
R to T is the same as R to S.
Draw line iS with point N of the curve-rule on line 14.
Draw line 20 with point J of the curve-rule at L.
By increasing the distance from P to O, from R to S, and from R to T, the
collar will have more roll, and by diminishing the distance, it will have less.
A sailor collar is shown by the dotted lines.
It may be varied to any shape desired.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
COATS, JACKETS AND OTHER OUTSIDE GARMENTS.
Take the measure for outside garments in the same manner as for other gar-
ments, and make the following changes:
Add i % inches to the bust measure.
Add i inch to the waist measure.
Add i inch to the hip measure.
Add j 3 inch to the chest measure.
Add % inch to the width of back.
Add '., inch to the depth of scye.
Add -}^ inch to the over shoulder.
Add ] \i inch to the elbow measure.
Add i inch to the hand measure.
Subtract J 4 inch from the under arm measure.
In drafting coats the same principles are used as for a waist, and the measures
are applied in the same manner, except that the amount for darts is generally taken
out in one dart instead of two; and in the back at the waist line the center back
piece is made somewhat wider for coats than for waists.
Use a fine but firm piece of linen canvas in the front of a coat, and stiffen the
bust with a piece of hair-cloth, thus insuring the coat holding shape.
In selecting canvas for a coat, care should be exercised in procuring a piece
that will not so/ten when dampened and put under the iron, but will become stiff,
thus allowing of proper working of the coat in pressing,
Do not make a coat too tight fitting, but let it hang smooth and reasonably
loose from the shoulders, making' sure that it is well balanced ; that is, that it hanes
in the same manner when buttoned or unbuttoned.
The balance of a garment is wholly in the balance measures, and if they are
taken correctly and applied as per instructions given in this work, the result must
be a perfect, balanced garment.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR,
DIAGRAM 10
DESIGN FOR A HALF-FITTING, FLY FRONT COAT, WITH
LAPEL.
C is the centre between A and B (B is the width of chest point).
C to D is i inch, but may be more or less if desired.
Square down from D, establishing E, F and G.
There are 3 inches for dart, but for a half-fitting coat only 1 } s inches should
be taken out, namely, 3^ of an inch on each side of F.
There are 2 % inches for dart on the hip line, but for a half-fitting coat y z of
this amount may be left in by taking out 5/s of an inch on each side of G.
Draw line I from H to I straight.
I to J is 1 inch.
H to K is 1 inch.
Draw line 2 from J through K ; this gives 1 inch of lap, which is called the
button-stand.
The next point to establish is L, which locates the bottom of the lapel, and
it may be higher or lower than is shown in diagram, as style and fancy dictate.
Draw line 3 from L straight to the neck curve on the side, extending beyond
the curve to insure a perfect blending of the lines, as shown in diagram, thus estab-
lishing M, which may be higher or lower, according to the location of L.
Place point 12 of the curve-rule at M, and draw line 4 from M down toward
C, locating N as desired.
Draw line 5 with point C of the curve-rule at N.
M to O is 1^8 inches straight over from M.
P is the centre between M and O.
Draw line 6 from O to L straight.
Draw line 7 from P to L straight.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR,
Place the long arm of the square on line 7, with the short arm touching at N,
and locate O at the corner of the square, making the dotted line from O to N at
right angles to line 7.
Place the corner of the square at O, with the long arm on line 7, and locate R
at right angles to line 7, making the distance from Q to R the same as O to N.
Draw line 8 with point M of the curve-rule at M on the diagram.
Draw line 9 with point 22 of the curve-rule at R.
In designing lapels, first draw line 3 from where the lapel should end to where
it will blend into the neck eoree, then design it as you wish it to look when finished ;
then draw lines 6 and 7, after which proceed to transpose it so that when cut it will
fold to where it was designed to finish, line 7 being the break line of the lapel.
In this diagram the side-body seam is extended to the shoulder, point 18 of
the curve rule being used at the shoulder; in the next curve, point A of the curve-
rule is used at the arm-hole to give the desired shape. This is done to illustrate
some of the many curves that may be used in designing.
The dotted line on the front, running from the top of dart to shoulder, shows
how the dart seam may be carried up to meet the seam of- the back, point 7 of the
curve rule placed at the shoulder giving the curve here illustrated.
In a half-fitting coat the full amount for dart at G may be taken out, giving a
smooth-fitting coat at the hips.
A box front coat may be produced by leaving in, for fulness, the amount that
would otherwise be taken out by darts.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
DIAGRAM ii.
DESIGN FOR CORSET COAT AND COLLAR.
A to B is i *s inches.
Place the corner of the square at B, letting one arm touch at A, and draw line
I, making C i T <8 inches from B.
Place point 12 of the curve-rule at D, and draw line 2 from D to B.
Cut out the back, and place the shoulder lines of the front and back together,
as shown by the dotted lines on the diagram, locating E.
Draw line 3 straight through E, blending into line 2.
F to G is iy$ inches.
H is 1^8 inches from line 3.
Draw line 4 straight from H to G.
H to I is 1 1<| inches, or width of collar.
G to J is the same as H to I.
Draw line 5 from I to J straight.
Draw line 6 with point O of the curve-rule at I.
Draw line 7 with point 10 of the curve-rule at H, letting it touch line 2 at the
centre break-line (line 7 in diagram 10).
K to L is the same as A to B, 1 ) s inches.
By measuring around the neck-gorge where the collar sews on, from L to E, it
is found to be 8 m inches, and as the collar should be slightly fulled on to the coat,
it should be }i inch longer, or 8 }£ inches; therefore measure from B, on lines 2 and
3, 8 yi inches, locating M.
Draw line 8 from M at right angles to line 3.
N to O is '4 of an inch.
Draw lines 9 and 10 straight.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
This completes the collar, the two halves sewing together on lines 9 and 10
for canvas and under collar, and line 8 should be placed on a lengthwise fold of the
goods for outside or top collar.
Place a piece of paper under the diagram and trace the collar as follows : Be-
ginning at C, trace lines r, 2, 3, 9, 10, 5, 6; trace the break-line on lines 4 and 7, as
shown in Fig. 2.
The dotted lines on FiV. 2 indicate the straieht of eoods for under collar and
canvas.
The y A inch fulness allowed on collar should be eased in for about 2 inches
in front of shoulder seam.
This diagram of a coat shows the front and back having four pieces each, and
at the present time is called a Corset Coat, further illustrating the variations that
may be made in designing, the same principles being used in this as in all previous
diagrams shown in this work.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
DIAGRAM 12.
DOUBLE-BREASTED COAT WITH PEAK LAPELS.
A to B is 3 ^ inches (more or less according to size of person).
C to D is 3 J 2 inches (or the same as A to B).
Draw line I straight.
Then locate the end of the lapel — in this diagram it is located at D, but may
be hieher or lower.
o
Draw line 2 from I) to where it blends into the neck-curve, establishing E.
E to F is i yi inches, or the height of the collar-stand.
Draw line 3 straight from D to F.
G is the centre between E and F.
Draw line 4 straight from D to G.
Draw line 5 from E straight, locating H as desired. E to H is 3 <.; inches in
this diagram, but may be more or less.
Draw line 6 straight from H 2 % inches (more or less), locating I.
Draw line 7 with point T of the curve-rule at I.
Having designed the lapel as you wish, proceed to transpose it so that when
cut it will fold to where designed to finish.
Place the long arm of the square on line 4, letting the short arm touch at H,
and locate J as per dotted line.
Place the corner of the square at J with the long arm on line 4, and locate K at
right angles to line 4, with the distance from J to K the same as that from J to H.
Draw line 8 from E to K straight.
Place the long arm of the square on line 4, letting the short arm touch at I,
and locate L as per dotted line.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
Place the corner of the square at L, letting the long arm rest on line 4, and
locate M at right angles to line 4, with the distance from L to M the same as that
from L to I.
Draw line 9 from K to M straight.
Draw line 10 with point 5 of the curve-rule at M.
TO DRAFT THE COLLAR.
Place the edge of the rule at H, letting it touch the point where line 8 crosses
line 4, and draw line 1 1, locating F, and making the distance from H to F the same
as E to K.
Cut out the back and place the shoulder lines together, as shown by dotted
lines in diagram, locating N.
Draw line 12 straight from F through N.
O to P is the height of collar stand, 1}$ inches.
Q is the same distance from line 1 2 as P is from O, i : 8 inches.
Draw line 13 straight from Q to P.
P to R is the width of collar (1 % inches in this diagram).
O to S is the same as P to R.
Draw line 14 straight from R through S.
The collar may be curved from S to line 6, as shown, if desired.
Measuring the neck-gorge from E to N, it is found to be 4.)^ inches, and as
the collar must be fulled in J + inch, it must be 5 inches long.
F to T is therefore 5 inches.
Draw line 15 at right angles to line 12.
U to V is % inch.
Draw line 16 from T to V straight.
Draw line 17 straight from V, crossing line 15, i J s inches from U.
Draw line 18 with point O of the curve-rule at O.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR,
Trace out the collar on lines i r, 12, 16, 17. 14,6.
Trace the break-line on lines 18 and 13.
By laying line 20 on the fold of the goods a regular box coat will be produced,
but a fitted back may be made for this front by taking out in the back, at the waist
line, the difference between the first and the second balance measures, while a half-
fitted back is produced by taking out one-half of that amount.
Tight-fitting fronts are also made with this style of collar and lapel, and in
such cases the button-stand, or lap, should be about twice as wide at the bust as it
is at the waist line; the dart should slope so as to run parallel to the edge of the
coat when buttoned.
Extra fulness at the bottom of a coat may be produced as follows :
Place line 20 on the fold of the goods at the neck, and i 1 /^ inches from the
fold of the goods at the bottom (dotted line 21 showing the fold of goods). This
gives 3 inches of fulness in the centre back at the bottom of the coat.
Cut the pattern on line 22, separating it at W 3 inches, keeping the pattern
together at X, as shown on diagram by dotted lines.
Proceed in like manner with the front, cutting through on line 23, separating
at the bottom until the desired fulness is produced.
The first impression might be that by cutting on line 22 and spreading the
pattern at the bottom, that the same result would be produced as by adding a like
amount under the arm; but by observing the dotted lines it will be seen that the
arm-hole has been changed in shape, and that at Y it has raised, but when the
garment is sewn together this will resume its former position, thereby forcing the
goods back to where the slash was made at line 22.
The front has also raised at Z, but will drop to its former position when the gar-
ment is on the person, throwing the fulness to where the slash was made at line 23.
This rule applies to all garments where fulness is wanted at a given point. Put
the fulness where you wish it by cutting and spreading the pattern at that point,
but never put fulness where it is not wanted with the expectation that it will be
drawn to the point where it is wanted ; if you do, the result will be a disappointment.
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DIAGRAM 13.
COAT WITH SHAWL COLLAR.
Establish point A wherever you wish the lapel to end.
Draw line 1 from A to where it will blend into the neck-curve, establishing
point B.
B to C is the height of collar-stand, 1 J 8 inches (more or less if desired).
Draw lines 2 and 3 straight.
Draw line 4 with point 12 of the curve-rule at B, establishing D.
Draw line 5 with point C of the curve-rule at D.
Place the long arm of the square on line 3, letting the short arm touch at D
and establish E.
E to F is the same as D to E, and at right angles to line 3.
Draw line 6 with point M of the curve-rule at B.
Draw line 7 with point 22 of the curve-rule at F.
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DIAGRAM 13.
THE COLLAR.
Draw line 8 from C to D with point 12 of the curve-rule at C.
Cut out the back, put the shoulder lines together and establish G.
Draw line 9 through G, blending into line 8.
Line 10 is 1 ^s inches from and parallel to line 9.
Line 1 1 is 2 inches from and parallel to line 10.
Draw line 12 with point 24 of the curve-rule at D, blending into line 1 1.
By measuring around the neck-gorge, from F to G, you find it to be 9 inches,
and as the collar should be fulled on % inch, it must be 9 l 4 inches long.
D to H is therefore gii inches on lines 8 and 9.
Draw line 13 at right angles to line 9.
I to J is [ 4 of an inch.
I to K is the same as I to H.
Draw line 14 from H to J straight.
Draw line 15 from J through K to line 1 1.
Trace out the collar on lines 8, 9, 14, 15, 11, 12.
The under-collar and canvas are cut out in the usual manner and sewed into
the neck-gorge, while the top collar and facing are in one piece.
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DIAGRAM 13.
TOP-COLLAR AND FACING.
Take the collar which you have cut out, place the reverse side up, and put
point D on the collar to point F on the coat, letting line 8 on the collar follow line
6 on the coat; this will bring C on the collar to B on the coat. Mark around the
collar as per dotted lines, extending the line in the back 1 inch beyond the collar to L.
A to M is 4 inches, and N to O is the same.
Draw line 16 from M through O, to the bottom of the diagram
Draw line 17 with point 5 of the curve-rule at L.
Trace out the facing, beginning at the bottom, running up the front and
through line 7, then on the outside dotted lines to L, then on lines 17 and 16 to
the bottom.
Where the form is flat in front and you wish to give the coat a shapely appear-
ance, after drafting the front, cut the pattern from the top of dart to the arm-hole, as
shown on diagram, spread the pattern at the bottom, keeping it together at the
arm-hole, as shown by the dotted lines.
This will make a larger dart at waist and hip, but it must not run higher than
before, therefore locate the top of dart midway between the top of dart points on
the two pieces that have been separated ; these will be found by the ends of dart
lines where cut apart.
Place points O and 10 of the curve-rule at this centre point, and draw the dart
lines to the waist, as shown on the diagram.
By thus separating the pattern and widening the dart, you may have as full a
bust as you wish without affecting the fit of the coat ; the principle of which is
given fully in diagram 1 2.
To add to the bust measure would increase the size of the garment, thereby
destroying the fit, while to spring in more darts simply rounds out the front, leav-
ing the coat the same size when on the person.
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DIAGRAM 14.
COAT SLEEVE.
To draft a sleeve for an outside garment, measure the arm-hole in the pattern
and add the desired fulness ; this will give the arm-hole measure for the sleeve. As
the elbow and cuff must be larger than for the garment worn under the same, add
the necessary amount to the elbow and hand measures, and draft the sleeve as per
diagram 4 with the following variations:
A to B is 1 ,'o inches (more or less if desired).
C to D is the same as A to B.
B to E is one-half the elbow measure plus 1 ,v> inches (or as desired).
D to F is the remainder of the elbow measure not used from B to E.
The divisional of the upper and under sleeve may be equal, making a half and
half sleeve, or in any manner desired.
Put notches at B and D, also at E and F, keeping these notches together
when joining the sleeve, thereby preventing a twist in the same.
In all sleeves where the upper is wider than the under, the upper sleeve will
necessarily be longer than the under at the outside seam, and this fulness must be
gathered into the under just below the elbow notch. To insure this being done
correctly, proceed as follows :
F to G is 2 inches.
J to I is the same as G to H.
Put notches at G and I, and keep these notches together in joining the sleeve,
thereby keeping the fulness between F and G.
This diagram shows a bell effect at the hand, there being twice the amount on
the back of the sleeve as upon the front.
In drafting the sleeve, as well as all other patterns, the best results are ob-
tained by using the same curve wherever two lines sew together.
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DIAGRAM 14. Figure 2.
This diagram is intended to further illustrate the variations that may be made
in drafting, in order to conform to the changes in styles.
Draft the sleeve as in Diagram 14, then proceed as follows :
A is the top of the sleeve, which is centre between E and F in Diagram 4.
Draw line 1 straight from A to the centre of the diagram at the hand.
Cut out the sleeve, and cut through the upper from A on line 1.
Lay the two pieces of the upper on a piece of paper, keeping them together at
the bottom, but separating them at the top, making the distance from A to B
6 inches (more or less if desired).
Draw line 2 joining the tops of the two pieces with point R of the curve rule
in the centre.
C is centre between A and B.
Draw line 3 from C straight through the centre of the opening.
C to D is 5 inches.
Sweep line 4, pivoting at D.
This gives a sleeve with 6 inches of extra fulness at the top, which may be
plaited, gathered, or small darts may be run from line 4 to line 2, depending on the
style of sleeve wanted.
Should more height be wanted at the top of the sleeve, make the distance
from C to D less than 5 inches.
D may be placed at any point desired, and line 4 may be carried farther down
in the arm-hole, thereby making the sleeve wider at the top.
Line 1 may be drawn to the elbow point, starting the fulness at the elbow, or
it may be drawn to the bottom of the sleeve, starting the fulness at the hand.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
DIAGRAM 15.
STORM COAT OR NEWMARKET
When the back is divided into two pieces, the balance line should be placed
well to the back of- the arm-hole, making the balance measures short, as in this
diagram. The first balance measure is 8 inches; the second balance measure is 5
inches, and the third balance measure is 9 '.; inches.
For lono- coats and wrappers, take the skirt lengths from the waist line to the
carpet, in front, on the side, and down the centre back; then subtract an equal
amount from each length, thereby making the garment an equal distance from the
carpet at all points.
A to B is }. 2 inch.
1) to C is 2 inches (more or less according to measures).
A to D is the first balance measure.
D to E is yl of an inch.
E to F is the remainder of second balance (3 inches in this case).
G to H is the third balance (9 }, inches for these measures).
Draw line 1 with point 2 of the curve-rule at E, extending through H, as
shown on the diagram.
Place the edge of the square on I and E, establishing J as per dotted line.
Place the edcre of the square on K and L, establishing M as per dotted line.
M to N is the same as J to H
Draw line 2 with point W of the curve-rule at L, extending through N, as
shown on the diagram.
Draw line 3 straight down from O the desired length of skirt in front, estab-
lishing P.
Line 4 is parallel to and 3 ,'. 2 inches from line 3.
Draw line 5 at right angle to line 3.
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P to O is 1 8 inches for a medium size (more if desired).
Draw line 6 from O to where it will blend into line 2 as shown on the diagram.
Measure down from L on lines 2 and 6 the length of skirt on the side, estab-
lishing R.
Pivot at L and sweep line 7 from R, blending into line 5.
Place the edge of the rule on K, L and M, and draw dotted line 8, establishing S.
Place the edge of rule on I, E and J, and draw dotted line 9, establishing T.
Lines 8 and 9 are equivalents, and by measuring from S to Q, we find there
are 8 inches of increase on the back side of the front, and there must be the same
amount of increase on the front side of the under arm-piece.
T to U is therefore 8 inches.
Draw line 10 straight from U to where it will blend into line 1, as shown on
the diagram.
E to U is the same as L to R.
U to V is 1 1 inches for a medium size.
Draw line 1 1 from V to where it will blend into the hip curve on the back side
of the under arm piece.
Measure down from F on line 1 1 the desired length of back, establishing W.
Sweep line 12, pivoting at E.
Draw line 13 from W, blending into line 12.
Find the centre between F and C, and from this point draw dotted line 14,
establishing X, as shown on the diagram.
X to Y is the same as X to W.
Draw line 15 from Y to where it will blend into the hip line on the front side
of the centre back piece.
Y to Z is 17 inches (more or less as desired).
If an open or vented back is wanted, measure down from B in the centre back
2 inches, and square back from this point i-}^ inches; draw line 16 straight from
this point to Z, as shown in diagram.
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For a closed back, draw line 16 from Z to where it will blend into the hip line
at or near G.
Measure down from B the length of skirt in the back, establishing (a).
Draw line 1 7 from Y to (a).
The back may be made half-fitting by taking out at the waist line one-half of
the difference between the first and the second balance measures.
This diagram is also used for a wrapper, by leaving off the lapel, and drawing
line 4 up level with the neck, and squaring back into the neck-gorge. This will
give a fulness at the neck, which is gathered into the neck band. The bottom
should be made wider, and especially in the centre back, where the fulness may be
plaited about 2 inches below the waist line, or it may be carried up to the back of
the neck and plaited or gathered into the neck band at that point.
DIAGRAM
IS -
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
DIAGRAM i6.
EATON AND BOLERO JACKETS.
The Eaton Jacket is drafted like the coat, with the regular number of pieces,
as shown by dotted lines.
By placing the pieces together at the waist line you form a garment with no
seams excepting the shoulder seams.
The centre back must be laid on a lengthwise fold of the goods, touching the
fold at neck and waist line.
This garment may be produced with a seam under the arm, or with an under-
arm piece if so desired.
By cutting the pattern from top of dart to the arm-hole, you may bring the
usual dart lines together at the waist line, and have a dart from arm-hole to bust
instead. This is simply another way of producing novelties without injuring the
fit of the garment.
We have also shown on this diagram, by the dotted lines, a Bolero Jacket with
shoulder seam on top of shoulder, this being done by cutting a piece from the
front and adding the same to the back. Cut out )i inch or more all around the
arm-hole, as shown on the diagram.
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DIAGRAM 17.
YOKE FOR THE TOP OF SKIRTS, ETC.
Waist measure, 24 inches. Hip measure, 40 inches, which is taken 5 inches
below where the waist measure is taken.
One-half the hip measure, 20 inches, minus one-half the waist measure, 12
inches, equals 8 inches of swell.
This diagram is a simple problem of geometry, the following being the solution :
Circles are to each other as their radii or diameters are to each other; and the
difference of the arcs of two concentric circles is to the arc of the smaller circle
as the difference of their radii is to the radius of that circle.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
The arcs of the circles being 20 and 12 inches, their difference is 8 inches, and
as the hip measure is taken 5 inches below where the waist measure is taken, the
difference of their radii must be 5 inches, hence the following:
The difference between the waist and hip, S inches, is to the waist, 12 inches,
as the difference of their radii, 5 inches, is to the radius of the waist, or 8 : 12 :: 5 : (?)
Multiplying the means together the product is 60, which divided by the one
extreme (8) the quotient is 7 %, which is the radius of the waist circle. From this
proposition is deduced the following rule :
Multiply one-half the waist measure by 5, and divide the product by the swell
(which is the difference between one-half the waist and one-half the hip), the quo-
tient will be the radius of the waist circle, or distance from which to pivot.
.EXAMPLE.
One-half the waist measure, 12 inches, multiplied by 5 equals 60; 60 divided
by 8 (the swell) equals 7 } 2 inches, which is the radius of the waist circle, or dis-
tance from which to pivot.
DRAFT THE YOKE AS FOLLOWS:
Draw line 1 straight.
A to B is the radius of the waist, 7 }4 inches.
B to C is 5 inches, always.
Sweep line 2 from B, pivoting at A.
Sweep line 3 from C, pivoting at A.
Measure around on line 2 from B, one-half the waist measure, 12 inches, and
locate D.
Draw line 4 from A through D to line 3
This diagram is used for drafting yokes for the tops of skirts and underwear,
and also for the skirt to a coat, where the skirt sews on, at the waist line.
The principles used in this diagram are also used to draft a flounce for the
bottom of a skirt, the diagram for the same being shown elsewhere.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
SKIRT FOR COAT.
Draft the coat to the style desired, down to the waist line; then draft a yoke
to the hip and waist measures, extending lines i and 4 down from B and D, the
distance necessary to give desired length of skirt, and from this point sweep a line
for bottom of skirt, pivoting at A. This will give a closed front with equal length
all around, which may be shaped to a cut-a-way, or any style of skirt desired.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
This skirt will fit smoothly at the waist and hips, but will have more or less
fulness at the bottom, depending on the relative size of waist and hips; less fulness
may be produced at the bottom by adding one inch or more to the waist measure,
and fulling this into the coat at the waist line.
EXAMPLE.
Waist 12 inches, plus i inch, equals 13 inches.
Hip 20, minus 13, equals 7 inches of swell.
Waist 13, multiplied by 5 equals 65.
65 divided by 7 equals 9 2-7, as distance to pivot from A to B.
This will give 1 inch to full in at the waist, as the coat is 12 inches, while the
top of the skirt is 13 inches.
As the waist has been increased without changing the size of the hip, the skirt
must be smaller at the bottom.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
SKIRT DRAFTING.
The advantage of a method whereby a skirt may be drafted for any individual
form, producing a perfect fit at the waist and hip, giving the exact lengths and the
proper shape at the bottom for finishing, and at the same time controlling the hang
of the skirt so as to conform to the prevailing style, is too well understood to ne-
cessitate any comment; the only question which may arise in the mind of the reader
being, can it be done ? We answer, yes, it can and is being clone every day by
those who have mastered this work; and the only dissenters are those who will not
take the time, and' apply their minds in the proper manner to thoroughly master
the problems herein contained and their underlying principles.
These diagrams, and the demonstrated principles connected with the same,
are all based on geometry, and the solution of the problems is as positive as Euclid's
elements, and if thoroughly understood, any skirt that is or will be worn can be
easily drafted.
Do not begin at the diagram which describes the skirt you may wish to use
first, but begin at the beginning, and fully master each succeeding diagram until the
whole is understood, then draft your first skirt.
As all skirts are drafted to measures, the first important item is to take these
measures correctly, for if the measures are not correct the skirt cannot fit, while
accurate measurements will produce a perfect pattern, and are easily taken if the
following instructions are followed:
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
THE WAIST MEASURE.
Take the waist measure tight around the smallest part of the waist.
THE HIP MEASURE.
Take the hip measure very loose around the hips, five inches below where the
waist measure was taken.
THE SKIRT LENGTHS.
As the band of the skirt will adjust itself to the smallest part of the person,
tie a cord around the waist, drawing it tight, so that it will seek the place where
the waist band will come in wearing the skirt.
LENGTH IN FRONT.
Measure from the cord at the waist down the centre front to the carpet. While
this measure is being taken, be sure that the person being measured stands erect,
looking at an object on a level with the eyes, for should she look down, the meas-
ure will be too short.
LENGTHS ON THE SIDES.
Take a measure on each side, from the cord at the waist, over the fullest part
of the hip, down to the carpet.
LENGTH IN THE BACK.
Measure down the centre, back from the cord at the waist, to the carpet.
From the above measures, taken to the carpet, make the following changes:
Subtract % inch from the length in front ; subtract M inch from the side lengths,
and draft a skirt to these corrected measures, and it will hang M inch from the
floor all around when walking.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR
EXAMPLE.
Length in front, to carpet, 40 ', inches, less % equals 40, corrected length
Length on the side, to carpet, 40-)^ inches, less M equals 40J&, corrected length.
Length in back, to carpet, 41 inches, equals 41, corrected length.
If a short skirt is wanted, subtract an equal amount from the corrected meas-
ures, in the front,-on the sides, and in the back.
EXAMPLE.
Length in front, corrected, 40 inches, less 3 equals $7 inches, for short skirt.
Length on the side, corrected, 40, '. inches, less 3 equals $7 '2 inches, for short skirt.
Length in back, corrected, 41 inches, less 3 equals 38 inches, for short skirt.
The following measures will be used for drafting skirts, unless otherwise stated.
Hip measure, 44 inches, and as a pattern is drafted for one-half of the skirt,
we use one-half of this amount, 22 inches.
Waist measure 26 inches, one-half of which, to draft one-half the skirt, is
1 3 inches.
Subtracting the waist measure, 13 inches, from the hip measure, 22 inches,
gives 9 inches as the increase from the waist to the hip, which is called the swell.
Complete measures from which to draft the skirt :
Waist measure, 13 inches.
Swell measure, 9 inches.
Front length, 40 inches.
Side length, 40 ', inches.
Back length, 41 inches.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR,
DIAGRAM 18.
S K I R T .
Draw line i the length of skirt in front (40 inches) plus one-half the waist
measure (13 inches), which equals 53 inches.
A to B is one-half the waist measure (13 inches).
H to C is 5 inches always.
I) to D is the length of skirt in front (40 inches).
Sweep line 2 from B, pivoting at A.
Sweep line 3 from C, pivoting at A.
B to E is 3 inches, or one-half the width of the front gore at the top.
C to F is the same as B to E (3 inches).
F to G is one inch, or one-eighth of the amount the front gore is to be wider
at the bottom than at the top.
Draw line 4 through E and G.
E to H is the length of skirt in front (40 inches).
Sweep line 5 from D, pivoting at A.
There were 13 inches in one-half the waist measure, but having used three
inches in the front gore (B to E), there remain 10 inches for the side gores.
There were 9 inches of swell, but having used 1 inch in the front gore (F to
G), there remain 8 inches for the side gores.
E to I is one-half the waist measure (13 inches).
Sweep line 6 from E, pivoting at I.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR
Sweep line 7 from G, pivoting at I.
E to J is 2,% inches, or the width of the first side gore at the top.
G to K is the same as E to J (3 }., inches).
K to L is 3 inches, or one-eighth of the amount the first side gore is to be
wider at the bottom than at the top.
Draw line 8 through J and L.
J to M is the length of skirt on the side (40/2 inches).
Sweep line 9 from H, pivoting at or near I, keeping the pivot point the same
height as I, but moving it to the front or back so that the arc (line 9) will touch
the two points, H and M.
After drafting the front gore, there remained of the zvaist measure 10 inches,
but 3 , ! o inches of this amount having been used in the first side gore (E to J), there
remain 6^4 inches for the other side gores.
After drafting the front gore, there remained of the swell 8 inches, but 3 inches
of this amount having been used in the first side gore (K to L), there remain 5
inches for the other side gores.
J to N is one-half the waist measure (13 inches).
Sweep line 10, pivoting at N.
Sweep line ii, pivoting at N.
J to O is 3 .'., inches.
L to P is the same as J to O.
P to O is 3 inches.
l)raw line 12 through O and Q.
O to R is the length of skirt (40^ inches).
Sweep line 13 from M to R, pivoting at or near N.
After drafting the front and the first side gores, there remained of the waist
measure 6 jo' inches, but 3 } 2 inches of this amount having been used in the second
side gore (J to O), there remain 3 inches for the third side gore.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
To make an under, or inverted box plait, proceed as follows:
Cut the paper on line 21, then fold the back gore in the centre so that line 21
will lay on line 16; then fold the back gore under the side gore by creasing the
paper on line 16. This will form an under plait.
While the back gore is folded under the side gore, cut the three thicknesses of
paper on line 14 at the top, and on line 17 at the bottom, giving the proper shape
to the back at the top where it sews into the band, and for finishing at the bottom.
By drawing a line through points E and F down to the bottom of the skirt
(as shown by dotted line on diagram), it will be parallel to line 1, because B to E
is the same as C to F, and the piece thus designated will be the same width at the top
and bottom; therefore the front gore having increased 1 inch (F to G) at the hip
line, 5 inches below the waist line, must increase at the bottom, down 40 inches
below the waist line, 8 times one inch, or 8 inches ; and this increase added to the
width of the gore at the top, 3 inches, gives 1 1 inches as the width of the gore at
the bottom, from D to N.
From this demonstrated proposition the following conclusion is drawn :
If the swell or increase on each gore, at the hip line, 5 inches below the waist
line, be multiplied by 8, the product will be the increase at the bottom 40 inches
below the waist line, and if there be added to this amount the width of the gore at
the top, the sum must equal the width of the gore at the bottom.
The first side gore increases at the hip (K to L) 3 inches, it will therefore in-
crease at the bottom 8 times 3 inches, or 24 inches; and this added to the width at
the top (E to J), 1% inches, gives 27 }i inches as the width of this gore at the
bottom (N to M).
The second side gore increases at the hip (P to O) 3 inches, and will increase
at the bottom 8 times 3 inches, or 24 inches, which added to the width at the top
(J to O), im inches, gives 27^ inches as the width of this gore at the bottom
(M to R).
The third side gore increases at the hip (U to V) 2 inches, and will increase
at the bottom 8 times 2 inches, or 16 inches, which added to the width of the top
(O to T) 3 inches, gives 19 inches as the width of this gore at the bottom (R to W ).
The back gore increases down 5 inches, 1 inch, and will therefore increase at
the bottom 8 inches, which added to the width at the top (T to X) 6 inches, gives
14 inches as the width of the back gore at the bottom.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
The front gore is 1 1 inches wide at the bottom.
First side gore is 27 >g inches wide at the bottom.
Second side gore is 27 k 2 inches wide at the bottom.
Third side gore is 19 inches wide at the bottom.
Back gore is 14 inches wide at the bottom.
Total, Q9 inches wide at the bottom for one-half of the skirt.
From these principles and illustrations we derive the following conclusions:
If the swell be multiplied by 8, and to this product the waist measure and the
width of the back gore at the bottom be added, the sum will equal the width of the
skirt at the bottom.
In the above measures the swell is 9 inches, which, multiplied by 8 equals 72
inches, to which is added the waist measure 13, and the back gore at the bottom 14
inches, giving 99 inches as the width of the skirt at the bottom, being the same
as in diagram.
EXAMPLE 2.
Hip measure, 40 inches, divided by 2, equals 20 inches.
Waist measure, 26 inches, divided by 2, equals 13 inches.
Hip, 20 inches, minus the waist, 13 inches, equals 7 inches of swell.
Swell, 7 inches, multiplied by 8, equals 56 inches, plus the waist, 13 inches,
plus the back gore, 14 inches, equals 83 inches as the size of half the skirt around
the bottom. In these measures the waist is the same size as in example 1, but the
hip is smaller, making the skirt smaller at the bottom, and establishing the fact
that to reduce the hip will reduce the bottom, and to increase the hip will increase
the bottom of the skirt.
EXAMPLE 3.
Hip measure, 44 inches, divided by 2, equals 22 inches.
Waist measure, 28 inches, divided by 2, equals 14 inches.
Hip, 22 inches, minus the waist, 14 inches, equals 8 inches of swell.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
Swell, 8 inches, multiplied by 8, equals 64 inches, plus the waist 14 inches,
plus the back gore 14 inches, equals 92 inches as the size of the skirt at the bottom.
In these measures the hip is the same size as in No. 1, but the waist is larger,
while the bottom of the skirt is smaller; thus establishing the fact that to increase
the waist will reduce the bottom, and to reduce the zvaist will increase the bottom.
This diagram teaches how to fit a skirt around the waist and hips ; how to
get the proper lengths, and how to figure out how large a skirt will be at the bot-
tom without putting in darts.
The next diagram will teach how to make a' skirt any desired size at the bot-
tom, still retaining the fit at the waist and hip.
This can be easily learned if one has fully mastered the problems thus far
given, but it is useless to try to go farther until the principles herein set forth are
understood, for they are the foundation of all skirt-drafting.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
DIAGRAM 19.
SKIRT.
The same measures are used for this diagram as for diagram 18, in order to
show the reduction at the bottom.
Hip measure, 44 inches, divided by 2, equals 22 inches.
Waist measure, 26 inches, divided by 2, equals 13 inches.
The swell (one-half the hip measure, minus one-half waist measure) equals
9 inches.
We have 13 inches of waist measure and 9 inches of swell to be divided into
a front and three side gores.
In diagram 18 they were divided as follows :
Front gore, waist 3 inches, swell 1 inch.
First side gore, waist 3 ■„' inches, swell 3 inches.
Second side gore, waist 3 % inches, swell 3 inches.
Third side gore, waist 3 inches, swell 2 inches.
Draw line 1 straight, the length of the skirt 1 'n front (40 inches), plus one-third
of the waist measure (8; 3 inches), which equals 487^ inches.
A to B is one-third of the waist measure (8j4 inches).
B to C is 5 inches always.
B to D is the length of skirt in front (40 inches).
Sweep line 2 from B, pivoting at A.
Sweep line 3 from C, pivoting at A.
B to E is the width of the front gore at the top, 3 inches.
C to F is the same as B to E.
F to G is the amount of swell in the front eore, 1 inch.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
E to H is >., inch, and is located in the following manner:
Place a point }., inch from the corner of the square, on the short arm at E,
letting the long arm touch at G, and draw a line from E to the corner of the square
locating H, then draw line 4 with the long arm of the square from the corner at H
down through G as shown in diagram. This makes the line from E to H at right
angle to line 4, which is very essential.
H to I is the length of skirt in front (40 inches).
Sweep line 5 from D, pivoting at A.
Place the corner of the square at H, with the long arm on line 4, and draw a
line from H to J, making the distance from H to J the same as H to E.
The lines running from H to E and H to J must be at right angles to line 4,
and the distance from H to E must be the same as H to J. otherwise the distance
from G to E would not be the same as G to J, and the darts would not sew together
properly, and the curve of the waist line would be changed, thereby destroying the
hang of the skirt.
Place the edge of the square on G and J, and draw line 6 up from J.
Draw the curved line from E to G with point R of the curve rule at E on
the diagram.
Draw the curved line from J to G with point 7 of the curve-rule at J on
the diagram.
I to K is one-third of the waist measure (8% inches).
Sweep line 7 from J, pivoting at K.
Sweep line 8 from G, pivoting at K.
J to L is the width of first side gore at the top, 2>H inches.
G to M is the same as J to L.
M to N is the amount of swell in the first side gore, 3 inches.
L to O is 1 inch, and is located as follows :
Place a point 1 inch from the corner of the square on the short arm at L, letting
the long arm touch at N, and locate O at the corner of the square. Draw line 9
from the corner of the square at O with the long arm, down through N as shown
in diagram; then draw a line with the short arm of the square from O to L, thereby
making the line from O to L at right angle to line 9.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
O to P is the length of the skirt on the side (40 >£ inches).
Sweep line 10 from I to P, pivoting at or near K.
Place the corner of the square at O, with the long arm on line 9, and draw a
line from O to O, making the distance from O to O the same as O to L.
This will insure the distance from N to L being the same as N to 0.
Place the edge of the square on N and O, and draw line 1 1 up from Q.
Draw the curved line from L to N with point W of the curve-rule at L.
Draw the curved line from O to N with point 2 of the curve-rule at O.
to R is one-half the ivaist measure (13 inches).
Sweep line 12 from O, pivoting at R.
Sweep line 13 from N, pivoting at R.
O to S is the width of the second side gore at the top, 3 } 2 inches.
N to T is the same as O to S.
T to U is the amount of swell in the second side gore, 3 inches.
Place a point 3^ of an inch from the corner of the square, on the short arm
at S, letting the long arm touch at U, and locate V at the corner of the square;
then draw a line from S to V with the short arm, and draw line 14 from the corner
of the square at V with the long arm down through U.
V to W is the length of skirt (40^ inches).
Sweep line 15 from P to W, pivoting at or near R.
Place the corner of the square at V, with the long arm on line 14, and draw a
line from V to X, locating X the same distance from V as S is from V, and making
the lines from V to S and V to X at right angles todine 14.
Place the edge of the square on U and X.and draw line 16 straight up from X.
Draw the curved line from S to U, with point W of the curve-rule at S.
Draw the curved line from X to U, with point 2 of the curve-rule at X.
X to Y is three-fourths of the waist measure, iqy& inches.
Sweep line 1 7 from X, pivoting at Y.
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Sweep line 18 from U, pivoting at Y.
X to Z is the width of the third side gore, 3 inches.
U to (a) is the same as X to Z.
(a) to (b) is the amount of swell in the third side gore, 2 inches.
Draw line 19 straight from Z down through (b).
Z to (c) is the length of skirt in the back (41 inches).
Sweep line 20 from W to (c), pivoting at or near Y.
Draw line 21 at right angles to line 19.
Z to (d) is the width of the back gore at the top, 6 inches.
Draw line 22 at right angles to line 21.
(d) to (e) is 5 inches.
(e) to (f) is 1 inch, or one-eighth of the amount that the back gore should be
wider at the bottom than at the top.
Draw line 23 through (d) and (f).
Fold the back gore to form an under or inverted plait, as described in
diagram 18.
In this diagram the distance across the hip is the same as it is in diagram 18,
and the distance across each gore at the hip is the same as in diagram 18; but the
distance across the waist in this diagram is greater than it is in diagram 18, while
each individual gore at the waist is the same width as it is in diagram 18.
The reason for this variation is that darts have been put in between each of the
gores at the waist, thereby increasing the waist in the diagram from B to Z.
In diagram 18 it has been proven that to increase the waist without changing
the hip will decrease the bottom of a skirt, and as putting in darts increases the
diagram at the waist, but does not change the hip, darts must therefore reduce the
size of the skirt at the bottom.
It is now necessary to determine how much a dart will reduce the bottom of
the skirt, so that a skirt may be drafted to any given size of waist and hip, and at
the same time produce a given size of skirt at the bottom.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
In diagram lS line 4 is drawn through points E and G, as per dotted line in
this diagram, giving D to # as the width of front gore, but in this diagram line 4 is
drawn from H through G, thereby locating I and giving D to I as the width of
the front gore instead of D to J as in diagram 18.
As both the dotted line and line 4 run through G, the front gore has not been
reduced at the hip, but 5 inches below the hip it has been reduced the amount of
the distance from E to H, namely, '., inch, and will therefore be reduced a inch
every 5 inches below this point, and as the bottom of the skirt is 35 inches below
the hip, the bottom will be reduced 7 times the width of the dart, or 3 }, inches.
Hence the conclusion that darts reduce the bottom of the skirt 7 times
their width.
From this demonstrated proposition the following rule is deduced. — If the
swell at the hip on a gore be multiplied by 8, and to this be added the width of the
gore at the top, the sum will be the width that the gore would be at the bottom
without darts ; and if the width of the dart be multiplied by 7, and this product
subtracted from the amount, the remainder will be the width of the gore at the
bottom with the dart inserted, as in this diagram.
By the above rule the size of each gore in diagram 19 figures out as follows. —
There is 1 inch of swell in the front gore at the hip line (F to G), which multiplied
by 8 gives 8 inches of increase at the bottom, and to this is added the width of the
gore at the top (B to E), 3 inches, giving 1 1 inches as the width of the gore at the
bottom without dart inserted; but as there is a dart in this gore at the top of } 2
inch, the gore has been reduced at the bottom 7 times % inch, or 3,^ inches;
subtracting this amount from the 11 inches gives J } 2 inches as the width of the
front gore at the bottom, from D to I.
In the first side gore there are 3 inches of swell (from M to N), which multi-
plied by 8 gives 24 inches as the amount of increase at the bottom ; adding to this
the width of the gore at the top (J to L), 3^ inches, gives 27^ inches as the
width of the gore at the bottom without darts; but there is a dart on the front side
of this gore of j 2 ' inch (H to J), and on the back side of 1 inch (L to O), making
\y z inches of darts on this gore, which multiplied by 7 gives \o% inches as the
amount of reduction on the bottom of this gore. Subtracting this amount from
the 27;^ inches there remain 17 inches as the width of the first side gore at the
bottom, from I to P.
In the second side gore there are 3 inches of swell (T to U), which multiplied
by 8 gives 24 inches of increase at the bottom, and adding to this the width of the
gore at the top (O to S), 3 )i inches, gives 27^ inches as the width of the gore at
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
the bottom without darts; but as there is a dart on the front side of I inch (O to O).
and on the back side of ^ of an inch, there are i3/£ inches of darts on this gore;
multiplying this by 7 gives 12M inches as the reduction made by the darts, and
subtracting this from the 27 14 inches gives 1 5 1 4 inches as the width of the second
side gore at the bottom, from P to W.
In the third side gore there are 2 inches of swell, from (a) to (b), which multi-
plied by 8 gives 16 inches of increase at the bottom; adding to this the width of
the gore at the top, 3 inches (X to Z), gives 19 inches as the width of the gore at
the bottom without darts; but there is 3.^ °f an mcn °f c ' art on the front side of
this gore (V to X), and this multiplied by 7 gives 5^ inches as the amount of
reduction at the bottom. Subtracting this from the 19 inches leaves 13^ inches
as the width of the third side gore at the bottom, from YV to (c).
The back gore has 1 inch of swell (e to f), which multiplied by 8 equals 8
inches of increase at the bottom, and adding to this the width of the gore at the
top, 6 inches (Z to d), gives 14 inches as the width of the back gore at the bottom,
down 40 inches from the waist line.
The front gore is 7^ inches wide at the bottom down 40 inches.
The first side gore is 17 inches wide at the bottom down 40 inches.
The second side gore is 13^ inches wide at the bottom down 40 inches.
The third side gore is 13.^ inches wide at the bottom down 40 inches.
The back gore is 14 inches wide at the bottom down 40 inches.
Total width at bottom 67 '., inches (one-half of the skirt when finished).
In diagram 18 the same hip and waist measure are used as in this diagram,
and the same width of back gore; but diagram 1 8 is 99 inches around the bottom
while this diagram is 6j % inches at the bottom, or 31 '._. inches smaller at the
bottom than diagram 1 S.
In diagram 18 there are no darts; but in diagram 19, from E to J, there is 1
inch of dart; from L to O there are 2 inches of dart, and from S to X there are
\ }i inches of dart, making a total of 4 }. 2 inches of darts in diagram 19; and as
darts reduce the bottom of a skirt 7 times their width, these darts will necessarily
reduce the bottom 31 % inches.
1 herefore to draft a skirt to a desired size at the bottom, with a given size at
the hip and waist. — First, find out how wide the skirt would be at the bottom
without darts; then subtract from this amount the desired size at the bottom, and
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR
the remainder will be the amount of surplus to be taken out by the darts, and as
darts reduce the bottom 7 times their width, in order to reduce the bottom a certain
amount the darts inserted must be one-seventh of that amount. Hence the
following rule :
Multiply the swell by 8, and to this product add the waist and the width of the
back gore at the bottom; the sum will equal the size of the skirt at the bottom
witJwut darts. From this amount subtract the desired size at the bottom, and
the remainder will be the surplus to be taken out by the darts.
Divide this surplus by 7, and the quotient will be the amount for darts.
EXAMPLE 1.
Hip measure 44 inches, divided by 2, equals 22 inches.
Waist measure 26 inches, divided by 2, equals 13 inches.
Hip 22 inches, minus 13 inches (waist measure), equals 9 inches of swell.
Swell 9 inches, multiplied by 8, equals 72 inches, plus 13 (the waist), plus 14
(the back gore), equals 99 inches, the size of the skirt without darts.
99 inches minus 6~ }i inches (the desired size) equals 31 \i inches surplus.
Surplus 31 <4 divided by 7 equals 4 f 2 inches as the amount for darts.
EXAMPLE 2.
Hip measure 41 divided by 2 equals 20 '., inches.
Waist measure 24 divided by 2 equals 12 inches.
Hip measure 20 } 2 minus 12 equals 8 y 2 swell.
Swell 8 ,'o multiplied by 8 equals 68 plus 12 (waist), plus 16 (back gore), equals
96 inches. (Size without darts.)
96 minus 72 (desired size) equals 24 inches of surplus.
Surplus 24 divided by 7 equals 33-7 inches, the amount for darts.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
EXAMPLE 3.
Desired size of skirt around the bottom, 3 }.; yards, with a 12 inch back gore.
One-half of skirt 63 inches. Hip measure 40 inches. Waist measure 22 inches.
Hip 40 divided by 2 equals 20.
Waist 22 divided by 2 equals 1 1.
20 minus 1 1 equals 9 swell.
Swell 9 multiplied by 8 equals 72 plus ii, plus 12, equals 95 inches, width of
skirt without darts.
95 minus 63 equals 32 (surplus), divided by 7 equals 44-7 inches for darts.
Darts are placed between the front gore and the first side gore, and between
each of the side gores ; therefore there will be as many darts as there are side gores.
Thus if there are two side gores, there will be two darts, and if there are three side
gores, there will be three darts ; while a skirt that has four side gores will have
four darts.
In dividing the amount for darts into the several darts, care and judgment
should be used, the following being the rule to govern the same :
If the form is perfectly round, the amount for darts should be divided equally,
but if the form is flat in front with large hips on the side, and medium full in the
back, the front dart should be small, the second dart large, and the third dart
medium in size.
On the form that is very full in the front, medium full on the side, and quite
flat in the back, make the first and second darts about the same size, with a small
dart for the back or third dart.
A skirt may be drafted with as many gores as the style and taste require by
simply dividing the waist measure into as many parts as it is desired to have gores,
and at the same time these gores may be proportioned to suit the taste; that is to
say, they may be of equal width, or some may be wider than others.
Diagram 19 illustrates a 9 gored skirt, there being one front gore, 6 side
gores, and 2 back gores; but it may be cut as a 7 gored skirt by leaving the third
side gore and the back gore together. It may also be used for a circular, or one
piece skirt, by leaving the pattern together as shown in the diagram, and not
cutting through on the lines that separate the gores.
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This will leave the darts running from the waist to the hip.
By this it will be seen that any two or more gores may be cut together and
that this diagram may be used for a i, 3, 5, 7, or 9 piece skirt.
In other words, there is no difference between a one piece and a 9 gored
skirt, as far as drafting the pattern is concerned.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
THE HANG OF THE SKIRT.
So far in this treatise on skirts, only the fit has been taken into consideration,
but the fit is not all there is to a skirt, for a skirt may fit, but not hang in the proper
manner to conform to the prevailing style.
At one time the styles may call for a skirt hanging full in front and at the
sides, forming ripples at the bottom; at another time they will be plain in front
with ripples on the side; and at still another period they will be plain both in the
front and on the sides.
In fact, the style of a skirt is mostly in the hang of the same, and this is con-
trolled by the distance from the waist line to the pivot point, or in other words, by
the length of the radius of the waist circle.
In diagram 19, on the first side gore, the waist line (line 7) is pivoted at K,
and the distance from J to K is one-third of the waist measure (8^ inches); had
the distance from J to K been one-half the waist measure (13 inches) point L
would be lower than it is in the diagram, which would draw the front gore back,
making it fit more closely at the knees and feet.
On the contrary, had the distance from line 7 to the pivot point been one-fourth
of the waist measure, point L would have been raised, and this would have forced
the front gore forward, making it full in the centre front at the bottom.
Each side gore controls the hang of the gore immediately in front of it, and as
there is an individual pivoting point for each side gore, the hang of the skirt at any
given point may be controlled by the distance from which the side gore is pivoted.
Hence the following rule:
To draw the skirt back and make it close at the feet and knees, pivot from a
greater portion of the waist measure.
To throw the skirt to the front and produce ripples at the bottom, pivot from
a lesser portion of the waist measure.
There are three distinct forms, on which the waist and hip measures may be
the same, namely, the regular form on which the waist line runs level, or straight
around the person, the form with the waist line high in the front and low in the
back, and the form with the waist line high in the back and low in the front. The
distance from which to pivot for each one of these forms must be varied, otherwise
the skirts will not hang the same on the different forms.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
If on the regular form, on which the waist line runs straight around, the skirt is
pivoted as in diagram 19, from ^3, %, }4, and ^ of the waist measure, on the form
having the waist line high in front and low in the back, the distance from which to
pivot should be 1 A I , ]/ 2 , ^, and the full waist measure, while on the form with the
waist line high in the back and low in front, the distance from which to pivot
should be %, %, }< and }4 of the waist measure.
These variations of the waist line may generally be determined by the skirt
lengths, in the following manner : On the form with the waist line running straight
around the front length, taken to the carpet, will ordinarily be one inch shorter than
the back length, and if the front length is longer than the back it is evident that the
waist line is high in front and low in the back, but if the front length is very short,
compared with the back length, the waist line must be high in the back and low
in the front.
These instructions regarding variations depend on the accuracy of the measure-
ments, and unless the directions for taking measures have been followed, they are
of no consequence.
For a bicycle skirt it is necessary that it hang full in the centre front, plain on
the sides, and full in the back; therefore the distance from the waist line to the
pivot point for the first side gore should be less, and for the last side gore should
be more than for a regular skirt.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR
DIAGRAM 20.
Having already demonstrated that if the zuaist measure together with the
proper width of darts be carried out on the waist line, and the hip measure be
carried out on the hip line, the bottom of the skirt (down 40 inches from the waist
line) must be the desired width. Therefore, if the ivaist measure together with the
same darts be carried out on the waist line, and the proper amount be carried out
in width of gores at the bottom (down 40 inches from the waist line), the result
must give the correct size of hip on the hip line.
ILLUSTRATION.
If in diagram 19, a straight line be drawn from H through G down to the
bottom of the skirt, it will locate I. Therefore if a straight line be drawn from
H to I it must locate G, and from this demonstrated fact we adopt the following
method of drafting skirts in order to save time:
Hip measure 43 divided by 2 equals 21 %.
Waist measure 24 divided by 2 equals 12.
Hip 21 [ 2 minus 12 (the waist) equals g }» swell.
Swell g% multiplied by 8 equals 76 plus 12 (waist), plus 19 (the back gore),
equals 107, width without dart.
107 minus 72 (desired size) equals 35 inches of surplus.
Surplus 35 divided by 7 equals 5 inches for darts.
As there are three darts in a 9 gored skirt, divide the amount for darts as
follows :
First dart 1 J + inches, 5 , s of an inch on the front gore, and 5/8 on the first
side gore.
Second dart 2 inches, 1 inch on the first side gore, and 1 inch on the second
side gore.
Third dart ify inches, 7$ on the second side gore, and 7/g on the third side
gore.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
There are 12 inches of waist measure, which may be divided as follows, or
as desired :
Front gore 3 inches, first side gore 3*4 inches, second side gore 334 inches,
third side gore 2^2 inches.
There are 72 inches for the bottom of the skirt, and subtracting 19 inches from
this for the back gore, there remain 5$ inches for the front and side gores, which
may be divided as follows or to suit the taste:
Front gore at the bottom "j }. 2 inches.
First side gore at the bottom 1 7 }£ inches.
Second side gore at the bottom 18 inches.
Third side gore at the bottom 10 inches.
THE FOLLOWING IS A FULL PLAN FOR THE SKIRT:
Front gore at top 3 inches, at bottom 7 y% inches, dart 5/% of an inch.
First side gore at top 3^ inches, at bottom 1 7 .', inches, dart 5 8 and 1 inch.
Second side gore at top 3 ' 4 inches, at bottom 18 inches, dart 1 inch and l/%
inch.
Third side gore at top 2 ,< 2 inches, at bottom 10 inches, dart Js of an inch.
Back gore at top 5 inches, at bottom 19 inches.
Draft the skirt as follows :
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Draw line i the length of skirt in front, 40 inches plus '3 of the waist measure
(8 inches), which equals 48 inches.
A to B is one-third of the waist measure, 8 inches.
B to C 5 inches always.
B to D is 40 inches.
Sweep lines 2, 3 and 4, pivoting at A.
B to E is the width of the front gore at the top, 3 inches.
E to F is the amount of dart on the front gore, S/% of an inch.
D to G is the width of the front gore at the bottom, 7 '., inches.
Draw line 5 straight from F to G in the following manner:
Place the edge of the long rule against the long arm of the square, with a point
$/% of an inch from the corner on the short arm, touching at E, while the edge of
the rule next to the square is on G ; locate F at the corner of the square, and draw
line 5 from F down through G, with the long arm of the square and the edge of
the rule; then draw the line from E to F with the short arm of the square, which
will make this line at right angle to line 5.
Place the corner of the square at F, with the long arm on line 5, and draw the
line from F to H, making the distance from F to H the same as F to E.
Place the edge of the square on H and I, and draw line 6 up from H.
Draw the curved dart line from E to I with point R of the curve-rule at E.
Draw the curved dart line from H to I with point 7 of the curve-rule at H.
H to J is one-third of the waist measure, 8 inches.
Sweep lines 7, 8 and 9, pivoting at J.
H to K is the width of the first side gore at the top, 3 ' 4 inches.
K to L is the amount of dart for the back side of the first side gore, 1 inch.
G to M is the width of the first side gore at the bottom, 17 ; 2 ' inches.
Draw line 10 straight from L to M, as follows:
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Place the long rule against the long arm of the square, with a point i inch
from the corner, on the short arm at K, while the edge of the rule next to the
square is on M ; locate L at the corner of the square, and draw line 10 from L down
through M with the long arm of the square and the rule; then draw the line from
K to L, with the short arm of the square, thereby making the line from L to K at
right angle to line 10.
Place the corner of the square at L with the long arm on line 10, and draw the
line from L to N, making the distance from L to N the same as L to K.
Draw the curved dart line from K to O with point w of the curve-rule at K.
Draw the curved dart line from N to O with point 2 of the curve-rule at N.
Place the edge of the square on O and N, and draw line 1 1 up from N.
N to P is one-half of the waist measure, 12 inches.
Sweep lines 12, 13 and 14, pivoting at P.
N to O is the width of the second side gore at the top, 3^ inches.
O to R is one-half of the third dart, 7§ of an inch.
M to S is the width of the second side gore at the bottom, 18 inches.
Draw line 16 straight from R to S in the following manner:
Place the long rule against the long arm of the square, with a point 7/% of an
inch from the corner on the short arm, touching at O, while the edge of the rule
next to the square is on S ; locate R at the corner of the square, and draw line 16
from R down through S with the long arm of the square together with the rule ;
then draw the line from O to R with the short arm of the square, thus making the
line from R to O at right angle to line 16.
Place the corner of the square at R with the long arm on line 16, and draw the
line from R to T, making the distance from R to T the same as R to O.
Draw the curved dart line from O to U with point W of the curve-rule at Q.
Draw the curved dart line from T to U with point 2 of the curve-rule at T.
Place the edge of the square on T and U, and draw line 1 7 up from T.
T to V is three-fourths of the waist measure, 18 inches.
Sweep lines 18, 19 and 20, pivoting at Y.
T to \Y is the width of the third side gore at the top, 2 .' 2 inches.
18
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
S to X is the width of the third side gore at the bottom, 10 inches.
Draw line 2 1 straight from W to X.
Draw line 22 at right angle to line 2r.
\Y to Y is the width of the back gore at the top, 5 inches.
X to Z is the width of the back gore at the bottom, 19 inches.
Draw line 24 straight through points Y and Z.
The skirt as now drafted is 40 inches long at all points; proceed to carry out
the proper length by shortening or lengthening as the measures may require, accord-
ing to the following instructions:
Measure down line 1 from B, the length of skirt in front, establishing (a).
Measure down line 5 from F, the length of skirt in front, establishing (b).
Sweep a line from (a) to (b), pivoting at A.
Measure down from L on line 10 the length of skirt on the side, locating (c).
Sweep a line from (b) to (c), pivoting at or near J.
Measure down from R on line 16 the desired length of skirt, locating (d).
The length of skirt on line 16 should be midway between the length of the
skirt in the back and the side length ; in this diagram the side length is 41 }.; inches,
and the back length is 42 inches, therefore the length online 16 should be 4 1 ^ inches.
Sweep a line from (c) to (d), pivoting at or near P.
Measure down from W on line 2 i the length of skirt in the back, establishing (e).
Sweep a line from (d) to (e), pivoting at or near V.
Cut the paper on line 24 and fold to line 2 1, forming the under plait as described
in previous diagram.
In figuring out the skirt problem it is always figured on the basis of a skirt 40
inches in length ; this is because it is an intermediate length.
When the styles call for a skirt to be four yards around the bottom, that means
for a skirt 40 inches long, and a person wearing a longer skirt should have one
proportionately wider, while a shorter person should have a narrower skirt. These
diagrams will give this increase and decrease when figured on basis of 40-inch
skirt length.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR,
After considerable practice with this method of drafting a skirt, one may draft
the pattern in sections; that is to say, a gore at a time, permitting the use of
narrower paper by proceeding as follows:
Draft the front gore and cut it out. Lay this gore with the reverse side up on
another sheet of paper, and mark along the edge of the gore from E to I, and
thence down on line 5 to the bottom of the gore, making a point at E, I and (b).
This will give the front side of the first side gore, and the points designated will
be H, I and (b) on the front side of the first side gore. Having the front side of
the first side gore, proceed to draft the remainder of the gore as in diagram 20.
Draft each gore in the same manner, using the back side of each gore to shape
the front side of the gore following it.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
DIAGRAM 21.
ELEVEN GORED SKIRT WITH FLARE AT THE BOTTOM.
Hip measure 42 divided by 2 equals 21.
Waist measure 25 divided by 2 equals 12%.
Hip 21 minus 1 2 ' equals 8 } 2 swell.
Swell 8 3 a multiplied by 8 equals 68.
68 plus \2}i (waist) plus 14 (back gore) equals 94 > 2 inches (width at bottom
without darts).
94)2 minus 63 (desired width) equals 31 ;.; inches of surplus.
Surplus 31 \i divided by 7 equals 4 J 2 ' inches for darts.
As there are four darts in an eleven-gored skirt, divide the amount for darts
as follows :
First dart 1 inch, second dart 1 inch, third dart 1 }., inches, fourth dart 1 inch.
There are 1 2 ): 2 inches of waist measure to be divided into a front and four
side gores, making 5 gores; which maybe divided equally, giving 2 }. 2 inches for
each gore, or in any manner desired.
There are 63 inches for the bottom of the skirt, and as 14 of this amount is in
the back gore, there are 49 inches for the front and side gores, which maybe divided
as follows : Front gore 6 inches, first side gore 12 inches, second side gore 12 inches,
third side gore 12 inches, fourth side gore 7 inches.
The following is the condensed plan for the skirt :
Front gore at the top 2 M inches; at bottom 6 inches; dart % inch.
First side gore at the top 2 < 2 inches; at bottom 12 inches; dart } 2 and }. 2 inch.
Second side gore at the top 2 }.; inches ; at bottom 1 2 inches ; dart )/ 2 and 3 + inch.
Third side gore at the top 2 % inches ; at bottom 1 2 inches ; dart 3,4 and y 2 inch.
Fourth side gore at the top 2J£ inches; at bottom 7 inches; dart ,'o inch.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR
Pivot at the following points for the gores :
Front gore pivot at ' \ of the waist measure.
First side gore pivot at % of the waist measure.
Second side gore pivot at y 2 of the waist measure.
Third side gore pivot at ]/ 2 of the waist measure,
Fourth side gore pivot at ^ of the waist measure.
Draft the skirt as in diagram 20.
To make the flare at the bottom of the skirt, proceed as follows :
A to B is 1 inch (more, if more flare is wanted).
Draw a straight line from B to where it blends into the hip just below the
hip line.
Draw a curved line from A info line 1 (about 12 inches above).
A to C is the same as A to B always.
Draw a straight line from C to where line i touches the centre line in the
diagram.
Draw the curved line from A to line 2, letting it blend into line 2 at the same
height as in line 1.
Proceed with the other gores in the same manner, excepting that the amount
of flare may be more on each succeeding gore, if desired, as in this diagram. The
first being 1 inch ; the second 1 < 2 inches ; the third 2 inches, and the fourth 2 '._,
inches. The flare is also carried higher in each succeeding gore, the first being 12
inches; the second 14 inches; the third 16, and the fourth iS inches.
This diagram also shows the change necessary in the back gore for a habit
back skirt, there being no back gore at the top, but at the bottom it is necessary to
have some fulness in order to make a graceful skirt.
The habit back skirt must not be too close fitting in the centre back ; in the
diagram the curved line in the centre back slightly increases the size at the hip,
which is quite essential for a proper hanging skirt.
When it is desired to have an extra length of skirt in the back, commonly
called a train, draft the skirt to the regular length, and then add as much as desired;
but care must be taken not to start the same too far forward, for in so doing the
draw will come in front of the centre under the arm, which will raise the skirt on
the sides at the hip.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
DIAGRAM 22.
GORED SKIRT WITH CIRCULAR FLOUNCE.
Hip measure 40 divided by 2 equals 20.
Waist measure 22 divided by 2 equals 1 1.
Hip 20 minus 1 1 equals 9 inches of swell.
Swell 9 multiplied by 8 equals 72 plus 11 (waist) plus 15 (back gore) equals
98, width of skirt without darts.
98 minus 63 (desired width at bottom) equals 35 inches of surplus.
Surplus 35 divided by 7 equals 5 inches for darts.
First dart 1 inch: second dart 2^ inches; third dart 1^ inches.
Front gore at the top 2 M inches, at the bottom 6}., inches.
First side gore at the top 3 inches, at the bottom 16 inches.
Second side gore at the top 3 inches, at the bottom 15 inches.
Third side gore at the top 2 } 2 ' inches, at the bottom ioi 2 inches.
Back gore at the top 5 inches, at the bottom 1 5 inches.
Draft the skirt in the usual manner as shown in diagram 20.
A to B is the depth of flounce, 12 inches (more or less as desired).
Sweep line 1 across the front gore, pivoting at the same point that was used to
sweep line 2 on the front gore.
Sweep line 1 across the first side gore, pivoting at the same point that was
used to sweep line 2 on this gore.
Sweep line 1 across the second side gore, pivoting at the same point that was
used to sweep line 2 on this gore.
Sweep line 1 across the third side gore, pivoting at the same point that was
used to sweep line 2 on the same gore.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
Draw line i across the back gore, keeping it 12 inches from line 2.
By cutting through on line 1 across each gore the skirt will be 12 inches too
short, therefore draft a flounce 12 inches deep to sew to the bottom of the skirt
on line 1.
By measuring around from B on line 1, it is found to be 51 inches, and the top
of the flounce will need to be the same dimension, namely, 51 inches.
As it is desired to have the skirt 4 yards around the bottom, it will be necessary
to draft a flounce 51 inches around the top, 72 inches around the bottom, and 12
inches deep.
A CIRCULAR FLOUNCE.
The same principles are used to draft a circular flounce that are used in draft-
ing the yoke for the top of a skirt (diagram 1 7), namely, given the arcs of two
concentric circles, with the difference of their radii, to find the radius of the smaller
circle.
The arcs being 51 and 72, their difference is 21.
The depth of the flounce, 12 inches, which is the distance between the arcs
must be the difference of their radii.
As the differnce between the arcs of two concentric circles is to the arc of the
smaller circle as the difference of their radii is to the radius of the smaller circle,
we have the following proposition :
21 : 51 :: 12 : (?), and as multiplying the means together and dividing the
product by one of the extremes will give the other, we have the following solution :
51 multiplied by 12 equals 612, divided by 21 equals 29 1-7 inches as the radius of
the smaller circle.
HENCE THE FOLLOWING RULE.
To draft a circular flounce, multiply the top of the flounce by the depth of the
flounce, and divide the product by difference between the size of the top and bottom,
the quotient will be the distance from which to pivot.
EXAMPLE.
Top of flounce 51 multiplied by 12 (the depth of the flounce) equals 612
divided by 2 1 (the difference between the top and the bottom) equals 29 1-7 inches as
the distance from which to pivot.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
DRAFT THE FLOUNCE AS FOLLOWS:
Draw line 3 straight.
C to D is the distance from which to pivot, 29 1-7 inches.
D to E is the depth of flounce, 12 inches.
Sweep line 4 from D, pivoting at C.
Sweep line 5 from E, pivoting at C.
Measure around on line 4, from D, the size of the flounce at the top, 51 inches,
locating F.
Draw a straight line from C through F to line 5.
This gives a flounce 51 inches at the top, and 72 inches at the bottom, on the
half, or four yards around the bottom of the skirt.
Lines may be drawn from the pivot point (point C) through the flounce at any
point, dividing it into sections, and these lines will run straight up and down, but
unless they are kept in line with the pivot point, they will slope to the front or back.
If points are wanted on the top of the flounce to run up the seams, draw a line
from C to the point where the projection is wanted, and this line will give the
direction in which they should run.
TO DRAFT A GRADUATED CIRCULAR FLOUNCE.
Draft a skirt and a circular flounce as previously described, making the circular
flounce the same depth all the way around, as the graduated circular flounce is to
be in the centre front.
Measure up from the bottom, in the centre back, the height the flounce is
wanted at this point, and locate V, as X to V in diagram.
Select a point to pivot at that will strike a circle from B to V and give the
desired shape (it may be more curved or straighter than in diagram).
In this diagram line 7 is pivoted at G.
Having drafted a flounce to sew to line 1, if this flounce is sewed to line 7, the
flounce will be too short at the bottom; proceed to add to the bottom as follows:
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR,
Measuring from B on line 7, 6 inches, establishing H ; it is found that lines 1
and 7 are the same at this point, but from this point they diverge, therefore from
this point there must be an addition to the bottom of the flounce.
D to I on Figure 2 is the same as B to H on Figure i, 6 inches.
Place the edge of the rule on C and 1, locating (a) as the place where the
addition to the bottom of the flounce begins.
H to J is 6 inches, and by placing the edge of the rule on G and J, we get the
dotted line from J to line 1.
I to K is the same as H to J.
Place the edge of the rule on C and K, and locate (b) the same distance from
line 5 as J is from line 1, namely, ^ of an inch.
J to L is 6 inches.
Place the edge of the rule on G and L, and draw the dotted line down to line 1.
K to M is the same as J to L.
Place the edge of the rule on C and M, and locate (c) the same distance from
line 5 as L is from line 1, namely, 1 % inches.
L to N is 6 inches.
Place the edge of the rule on G and N, and draw the dotted line from N to
line 1.
M to O is the same as L to N.
Place the edge of the rule on C and O, and locate (d) the same distance from
line 5 as N is from line 1, namely, 3 inches.
N to P is 6 inches.
Place the edge of the rule on G and P, and draw the dotted line down to line 1.
O to O is the same as N to P.
Place the edge of the rule on C and O, and locate (e) the same distance from
line 5 as P is from line 1, namely, 4, 1 .., inches.
P to R is 6 inches.
Place the edge of the rule on G and R, and draw the dotted line down to line 1.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
Q to S is the same as P to R.
Place the edge of the rule on C and S, and locate (f) the same distance from
line 5 as R is from line i, namely, 6 inches.
R to T is 6 inches.
Place the edge of the rule on G and T, and draw the dotted line down to line i.
S to U is the same as R to T.
Place the edge of the rule on C and U, and locate (g) the same distance from
line 5, as T is from line i, namely, 7 ' 2 inches.
U to \V is the same as T to V.
Place the edge of the rule on G and X, locating Y.
U to Z is the same as T to Y.
Place the edge of the rule on C and Z, locating (h).
Draw a line from W to (h).
Draw the curved line from (a) through b, c, d, e, f, and (g) to (h).
Extra fulness may be thrown into the centre back, as shown by the dotted line
if desired.
This diagram also shows a yoke forming a part of the front gore, or in other
words, the front gore forms a yoke running around the waist.
This is done by cutting off the tops of the side gores, and putting the waist
lines together, as shown in the diagram.
In this style of skirt it is best to cut the side gores full length at the top, and
let them run under the yoke, and sew to the waist band.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR.
DESIGNING FANCY GARMENTS.
The novice not accustomed to designing may think that the plain — sometimes
called Hat — pattern has nothing to do with the fancy garment ; this, however, is
incorrect, for all fancy garments should be made from the plain, smooth-fitting
pattern, by adding fullness in the shape of tucks, plaits, gathers, etc., but after the
fullness has been added, the shape must be the same as the plain flat pattern, in
order to fit the person for whom it was designed.
It is therefore necessary to draft the plain, smooth-fitting pattern, and from
this pattern design the fancy pattern.
To illustrate how this may be done, we will take a skirt with a side plait at
each seam, i inch wide, and turned toward the back.
Draft a plain skirt with the desired number of gores, then add 2 inches to the
back side of each gore, this amount being taken up by the plait, leaves the gore
the original size and shape.
If the plait is to lay toward the front, it will be necessary to add the 2 inches
to the front side of each side gore, in order to cover the seams.
For a skirt with a box-plait in the centre of each gore proceed as follows :
Take a piece of paper the length of the skirt, and form a box-plait in the
centre of the same, now lay the plain gore on this paper with the box-plait in the
centre of the gore, and mark around the gore; cut the paper on these lines, while
the plait is folded, and you will have the same size and shape as the original gore ;
smooth out the plate in the pattern, and you will have a pattern the correct shape
to cut the goods by, and when the box-plait is formed in the goods, it will have the
same shape as the original gore.
Patterns may be cut at given points and seamed at these points, thereby form-
ing panels, etc., but when the several pieces are joined, the whole must be the same
size and shape as the original flat pattern.
A section may be taken from any plain, flat pattern, and a piece inserted in its
place, which may be plaited, gathered, shirred, or otherwise fulled, but this piece,
when so fulled, must be the same size and shape as the section which was cut from
the pattern, otherwise the garment will not fit.
The above applies not only to skirts, but to all other garments as well.
The Scientific Tailor
A treatise on the designing; and drafting of patterns for all classes oi
garments employing the principles used in mechanical drafting.
The author having spent several years in introducing his work into the
Factories, Schools, Tailoring and Dress-making establishments through-
out the United States and Canada in order to thoroughly test each and
every part of the same, now offers it to the public in separate volumes,
each one being adapted to a special branch of the garment industry.
This work is especially adapted to the wants of Technical and Manual
Training Schools, being in the educational line, and based on Geometry.
Price $10.00
The CURVE-RULE, described in this volume, is a great boon
to the garment designer, enabling him to do more and far better work
than can possibly be done by freehand movement.
Price $3.00
( By Express)
SQUARES, RULES, TRACING WHEELS, ETC., ALWAYS ON HAND
We are prepared to furnish block patterns for all classes of garments
for factory purposes, which are far superior to any pattern heretofore
offered to the general public; our large sizes fitting as well as the inter-
mediate sizes, as we do no grading, each size being an individual creation.
Special patterns drafted to measures for any style of garment wanted.
THE SCIENTIFIC TAILOR,
134 West 25th Street, NEW YORK.
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013 973 152 9<
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